Hypertension (HTN) is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). HTN increases risk of stroke and diabetes complications and at the end stage renal disease. Sleep disorders including short sleep duration are involved in pathogenesis of HTN. This study aimed to examine the association between selfreported sleep duration and HTN in a group of adult population in Isfahan City, Iran.
This cross-sectional survey was performed as part of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP). A total of 12492 individuals aged over 19 years (6110 men and 6382 women) entered the study. Sleep duration was recorded according to subjects’ self-report. HTN was defined as a systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ≥ 140 mmHg, a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of ≥ 90 mmHg, or use of antihypertensive medication. The relation between sleep hours and HTN was examined using multiple logistic regression in three models, unadjusted, adjusted according to age and sex, and adjusted according to age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC).
Sleeping time less than 5 hours, in comparison to sleep duration of 7-8 hours per night,was associated with a higher risk of HTN [odds ratio (OR) = 2.52, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.17-2.93]. This association remained significant even after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and WC (OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.16-1.64). Sleep duration over 9 hours had a negative association with risk of HTN among those under 60 years old (OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.47-0.86).
Sleep duration less than 5 hours is positively associated with HTN. It seems that sleep duration might affect HTN and atherosclerotic CVD.