Atrial septal defect (ASD) accounts for about 10% of congenital heart diseases (CHDs). Self-closure of these defects in patients with defects less than 8 mm has been reported in several studies. In children, transcatheter closure of the ASD is suggested for asymptomatic patients older than two years and with weight > 15 kg. The purpose of this study was to show that transcatheter closure of ASD in small children with body weight less than 10 kg is an effective and safe method.
Between July 2016 and September 2018, 35 children with body weight less than 10 kg underwent percutaneous closure of ASD using amplatzer. All patients had minimum defect size of 6 mm, pulmonary blood flow (Qp) to systemic blood flow (Qs) ratio above 1.5, right atrial and ventricular dilation, symptoms of delayed growth, and recurrent respiratory infections in their evaluation and had acceptable rims for intervention. Follow-up evaluations were done 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 6 months, and yearly after discharge with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and electrocardiography (ECG).
The mean age of patients at procedure was 12.06 ± 4.47 months (range: 6 to 14 months), mean weight was 8.32 ± 0.72 kg (range: 7.5 to 9.8 kg). The mean defect size was 10.00 ± 2.32 mm (range: 6-13 mm). The mean device size used was 10.57 ± 2.57 mm (range: 7.5 to 15 mm). Mean duration of follow-up was 16.66 ± 6.93 months (range: 1-29 months). Respiratory rate, heart rate, pulmonary stenosis (PS), and Qp to Qs ratio had significant difference before and after procedure during the follow up (P < 0.001).
Transcatheter closure of ASD with amplatzer in symptomatic small children and infants is a safe and effective treatment associated with excellent success, but long-term followup in a large number of patients would be warranted.