A Comparative Study of Presumption of Causation in Contractual Liability
In the law of civil liability, whether contractual or tortious, causal relationship is one of the elements required to be proved and according to general rules the burden of proof lies on the plaintiff. Some of the jurists are, however, of the opinion that the general rule, like many others, has exceptions. According to them, in some cases while the existence of the causation is required, the claimant need not prove it since the law assumes its existence in these cases. It is up to the defendant to rebut the presumption. Otherwise, the defendant is liable for damages. This opinion is opposed by other jurists who believe that the causal relationship, unlike fault, may never be presumed. The present article examines different opinions on the presumption of causal relationship in contractual liability in Iranian law and the law of some other countries.