Seed born fungi associated with birch trees in Northern forests of Iran
Birch is one of the most important trees in the northern forests which presently face extinction. Natural regeneration of these valuable trees is affected by various constraints, including pests and fungal diseases. In order to isolate and identify seed born fungi associated with Betula, seeds of 2 B.litwinowii and B.pendula was randomly collected from mature trees in mazandaran and golestan provinces. Seeds were surface sterilized with 70% ethanol and 1% sodium hypochlorite. Ten seeds in 5 replications plated on potato dextrose agar. Seed mycoflora was identified on the basis of spore characteristics, size, color and identification keys. A number of fungi including: Fusarium oxysperum, Alternaria alternate, Trichothecium roseumm, Amblyosporium echnolatum, Penicillum implicatum and Trichodema harzianum were isolated and identified and their frequency and incidence were recorded. The fungi T. harzianum, P.implicatum and A.alternata were externally observed with 34.5, 27.8 and 24.6% incidence, respectively and T.roseumm was observed after germination with 20.15% incidence. Results indicated that seeds can infect birth seeds externally or internally. This is the first report of fungi associated with birch seeds in Iran.
Iranian Journal of Forest and Range Protection Research, Volume:10 Issue:2, 2013
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