Acute effects of combined herbicides (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid) on blood factors and ALT and AST liver enzymes in Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Background And Objectives
In the recent years, we confront to harmful effects of toxins such as herbicides on aquatic species due to irregular consumption of these compounds in agricultural operations and drainage of them to water ecosystems. In the present study, the effect of 2,4-D + MCPA “the frequently used herbicide in Kurdistan province” was assessed on the hematological parameters and liver enzymes in rainbow trout as the main aquatic species farmed in this area.
Materials And Methods
After determination of LC50 using Probit model, 60 healthy trout fish with an average weight of 97 g were divided into two groups. The first group was considered as control and in the second treatment group, 1 cc/L herbicide (equivalent to 360 mg/L 2,4-D + 315 mg/L MCPA) was used. After 72 hours, hematology parameters including total number of red and white blood cells, differential count of white blood cells, hematocrit, and serum levels of ALT and AST enzymes were measured.
The values of blood tests including leukocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils in the toxin group was significantly increased in comparison with control group, whereas, the values of lymphocytes, erythrocytes and hematocrit were significantly decreased in toxin group compared with the control (p<0.05). There was no difference between the level of neutrophils in the treatment and control groups. The levels of liver enzymes, ALT and AST, in the treatment group increased significantly compared with the control group (P<0.05). The mortality rate after of 72 hours was 25% in the group treated with the toxin.
Erythrocytes and hematocrit amounts of blood in rainbow trout were decreased due to exposure to 2,4-D + MCPA herbicide that eventually leads to oxygen deficiency and inefficient blood supply. The contact of red blood cells and hematopoietic tissues to toxin and destruction of them are led to loss of the cells in the blood. On the other hand, liver, kidney and gills autopsy of the wasted fish and the increasing of liver enzymes in the blood and tissues showed that exposure to the toxin lead to damages in fish blood cells and tissues.
Iranian Journal of Health and Environment, Volume:7 Issue: 1, 2014
95 - 104  
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