From White Revolution to Islamic Revolution (Role of White Revolution in Unfolding of Islamic Revolution of Iran with Special Reference to the Role of Imam Khomeini)
The White Revolution and the Islamic Revolution both occurred in contemporary history of Iran. Although they have many essential and formal differences, they are sociopolitical developments that are related to each other. Indeed the former prepared the grounds for the latter, for they occurred one after another. First the White Revolution or the reform from above by Mohammad Reza Pahlavi occurred in the 1960s and then the Islamic Revolution under the leadership of Imam Khomeini occurred which was a full-fledged revolution from below in the 1970s. The Pahlavi’s reformist program moved in a direction that finally prepared the grounds for the activities of opponents who provoked the people against the government and regime and hence had different consequences. The opposition of Imam Khomeini and some other religious authorities to some of the principles of the White Revolution, that had been formulated with specific goals, finally led to his arrest and imprisonment in June 1963. The uprising was apparently suppressed by the Shah’s regime, but was in fact the turning point of the struggles of Iranian nation against the Shah under the leadership of Imam Khomeini that continued through 1970s and culminated in victory in 1979. The present paper is an attempt to study the role of the White Revolution in unfolding of the Islamic Revolution.
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