The side Effects of Several Pesticides and Plant Extracts on Biological Parameters of Green Lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) After Treating Eggs and 3rd Instar Under Laboratory Conditions
The side effects of three pesticides، hexaflumuron، pymetrozin and spirodiclofen and four plant extractions including، Calotropis procera (Willd.) R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae)، Teucrium polium (Labiatae)، Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumariaceae) and Thymus vulgaris L. (Labiatae) were evaluated on survival rate and reproductive parameters of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) at 26±1oC، 60±5% RH and 16:8 (L: D) photoperiod. The egg and 3rd instar larvae were assayed using dipping and topical application methods، respectively. The results demonstrated that the developmental period from egg to adults، was longer than controls. Among the pesticides and plant extractions، the pymetrozin (21. 3 days) and the F. parviflora (22. 8 days) had the lowest and highest effect on the developmental period against egg، respectively. In addition، the study was carried out on the 3rd instar larvae، and the results showed that the highest value of the developmental stage from 3rd instar larvae to adult was assayed by pymetrozin (15. 4 days) and F. parviflora (14. 8 days)، and the lowest value was calculated by hexaflumuron (12. 7 days) and spirodiclofen (12. 4). These results revealed that pymetrozin affected the 3rd instar larvae longevity but it didn not have a significant effect on the egg. It would also be expected that this pesticide doesn not have a negative effect on the efficacy of C. carnea as abiological control agent on target pests.