Yield and quality response of three chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) ecotypes to biofertilizers application in Bushehr region
This research was aimed to investigate the yield and quality response of two endemic chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) ecotypes from Bushehr and a commercial ecotype from Esfahan to biofertilizers، a field experiment was conducted during two growing seasons of 2008 and 2009 at the research farm of Persian Gulf University (Boushehr campus). The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete blocks design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. Treatments consisted of chamomile ecotypes، mycorrhisal inoculationfection (with and without) and amount of micro-biophosphate fertilizer (0، 30 and 60kg. ha-1). Morphological traits and flower yield were evaluated from the flowering period onwards and trhen the essential oil concentration، Chamazulene and Apigenine 7-glycoside percentage were measured. Also، after final harvest، nitrogen، phosphorous and potassium content of chamomile plant and soil were investigated. Result showed that except of the main effect of ecotypes، the other main and interaction effects on the measured traits were insignificant. The flower dry weight of Bushehr ecotypes (1 and 2) was %34 more than that of Esfahan ecotype in 1st year. However، in 2nd year، Boushehr2 had the highest dry flower yield (1132. 66 kgha-1) followed by Boushehr1 and Esfahan ecotypes with 12. 4 and 48. 8 percent loss، respectively. In both years of experiment، Esfahan ecotype produced more chamazulene in essential oil and Boushehr ecotypes were superior treatments for Apigenine 7-glycoside in dried flower (p≤0. 05). Although our finding revealed no significant effect of biofertilizers on all measured traits، a dry flower yield of 800-1000 kgha-1، 3 kg ha-1 essential oil، high percentage of chamazulene in essential oil (15-16% for Esfahan and 5-7% for Boushehr ecotypes)، and considerable amount of Apigenine 7-glycoside in dried flower (10-12. 7 kgha-1) demonstrated the high potential yield of chamomile using biofertilizers under field condition. Therefore، since chamomile showed a proper and vast ecological adaptation to the cultural conditions in Boushehr region، it could be introduced to the low input agricultural systems as a reliable part of local crop rotations.
Iranian Journal of Medical and Aromatic Plants, Volume:31 Issue:3, 2015
460 - 478
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