Mineralogy and consideration of backing conditions of Chogha Zanbil historical bricks
The backed bricks applied in Chogha Zanbil historical building are simple, glazed and beard with inscription types, and all are from Elamite era (13th century BC). This Elamit complex has been located in the Khuzestan province of Iran. The body colors of the bricks include yellow, brown, red and green-blue and they have the dimensions 10 cm× 35 cm× 35 cm and 8 cm× 37.5 cm× 37.5 cm. Despite, the bricks suffered environmental deteriorations over thousands of years, some of them have relative high hardness and they are still strength. The firing temperature and the baking condition of the bricks is one of the questions posed in Archaeometry. On the other hand, making the new bricks for the restoration purposes of the building requires the technical information about historical ones. Hence, after sampling the various historical bricks, chemical and mineralogical studies carried out by using XRD, FT-IR and chemical analysis (wet chemistry).The studies have shown that adequate amounts of Calcite and Dolomite with fine amorphous silica caused pyroxene phases such as Diopside at a low temperature around 700 oC in some bricks, which has made them more strength. The various color and quality of the bricks is due to lack of temperature control and atmospheric conditions in the preliminary kiln with wood fuel. The use of straw fibers in raw materials prevented cracking over drying and backing. The plant fibers also helped to back the core parts of bricks however incomplete combustion of carbon compounds and imprisonment of soot in the body, causing the defect "Black core" in them.
Iranian Journal of Ceramic Science & Engineering, Volume:4 Issue:2, 2015
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