Safety factor analysis of the stability of earth dams over the long period of time
Incorrect designing of earth and rockfill dams with untrue safety factors causes internal scouring, downstream pitched roof submerged and break dam in torrential times. Breakage of earth and rockfill dams and also too much volume of torrential flow can destroy catchment areas and fen beds. Furthermore, correct designing of dams and obtaining suitable safety factors will prevent of these damages. In this study, first of all, series of geotechnical tests have been performed on the soil samples of the Chitgar earth dam to determine the soil strength parameters and material characteristics. The achieved parameters have been used as input parameters for PLAXIS which is a finite element geometrical program for analysis of deformation and stability of soil structures. Based on different layers of foundation and dam body, four homogeneous and non-homogeneous models on coarse and fine foundations have been simulated and the results have been compared. These comparisons revealed that during construction of earth dams, which are situated on fine clay foundation, if the water level is high, there would be lots of pore water pressure which will cause the dam foundation to be destroyed. Therefore, dam must be constructed using step-by-step method so excess pore water pressure can have enough time to be lessened. The analysis, which carried out on non-homogeneous earth dams with clay cores, discovered that if dam construction is simultaneous with water filling, there would be high pore water pressure in the earth dam’s core which will reduce the safety factor of the dam. Therefore, it will be better if the non-homogeneous earth dams are filled after the construction period. Finally, sometimes in loose foundation, safety factor was found 1.45 for homogeneous dams in the stepped construction. The safety factor was estimated 1.14 non-homogeneous dams in the same conditions. Therefore, homogeneous dam can play better role than non-homogeneous dams in loose foundation.
Journal of Water and Soil Resources Conservation, Volume:5 Issue: 2, 2016
15 - 28  
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