Geotechnical study around the Khansar dam by enhanced power GPR method
Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) method has been extensively employed to map shallow subsurface targets. This method has been widely used to image faults, deformations and discontinuity in network inside rock in engineering and geological studies. The first aim of this study is to show applicability of GPR method in geotechnical study of conductive area (similar to the area around a dam) and the second goal of the study is to verify the capability of a new generation of GPR system (Loza) in imaging of deep targets. In addition, the main features of this system are described in this paper. GPR signal propagation is strongly controlled by water content. It has limited performance in fine grain soils such as clays, marl and silts, or in saline groundwater, all of which strongly attenuate signals. The main restriction of the method is the limited penetration especially in the areas with conductive materials. Unlike the common GPR systems, the Loza system can penetrate deep into the ground even in the conductive areas (up to 250 m). The GPR Loza is a portable, enhanced-power ground penetrating mono-pulse radar developed by VNIISMI Ltd. A distinctive feature of this instrument as compared to other commercial GPR systems is an increase in the transmitter peak power by a factor of 10000 to work in environments with high conductivity. The 10 KW high-power transmitter with 25 MHz unshielded antenna and 6 m length was applied for subsurface study to the depth of 10 m. The average velocity of subsurface was chosen 0.11 m(ns)−1according to the subsurface materials. With the Loza GPR system, the highpower transmission of radar waves in asynchronous mode are recorded with resistive loaded dipole receivers. Geophysical study by GPR method was carried out to find the geophysical properties around Khansar dam. Khansar dam is an earth dam with clay core and 5 million cubic meters reservoir capacity. The dam is of 770 m length, 38 m height, and 10 m crest width. It is located south of Khansar city in the east of Zagrous Chain Mountains. The main geological layers in the study area are limestone, schist and young alluvium. The objective of the study was to investigate contacts of the clay core of the dam with the bedrock and alluvium, groundwater level and the channel and cavities in the bedrock, alluvium and dam. A total of 9916 m parallel and perpendicular profiles was designed for achieving these purposes. The profiles over the dam consist of two groups of profiles. First, profiles that were carried out along the dam, over the rip rap and berms and second, the profiles that were carried out over the dam along the river. Three profiles have been selected for interpretation. Despite the conductive area of the dam, suitable data was received from the depth of 100 m. For each profile, the geological model is designed based on the interpretation and analysis of GPR data. Furthermore, the Krot software was applied for processing and data interpretation. Several anomalies have been detected based on the GPR processed data and geological information. Moreover, Geological layers and the bedrock (which is crashed along some profile) have been detected in the radargrams. In addition, a buried channel is distinguished in the profiles which is located over a crashed zone. The buried channel, weak and heterogeneous zones are interpreted in the GPR radargrams and plotted in the map of the dam. Separation of the geological structure to the depth of 100 m verifies the applicability of this system. Subsequent drilling results in the dam area approve the results of the GPR data.
Iranian Journal of Geophysics, Volume:10 Issue:1, 2016
15 - 27
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