THE ORIGIN AND SPREAD OF QANATS IN THE WORD
Abstract:
Subterranean tunnel-wells (qanat,s) are extremely important in the history of irrigation and human settlement in the arid lands of the Old Word. Apparently originating in pre- Achaemenid Persia, tunnel-wells spread to Egypt, the Levant, and Arabia in Achaemenid times (550-331 B.C). The Arabs carried Qanats across North Africa in to Spain and Cyprus; they are also found in central Asia, western China, and on a more limited scale in dry regions of Latin America. In modern times, more than tewenty terms are used to identify these horizontal wells; the Arabic word qanat meaning "lance" or "conduit" is used in iran , the Persian terms "KARIS" is used in Afghanistan, while in Syria, Palestine, and North Africa Fuqard (pronounced foggarra) is the most common term. In all of these regions, tunnel-wells are still being constrcted in the traditional manner, and many sttlements depend on them for irrigation and domestic water. Where used, qanats have stongly influenced village sotio- economic organization and patterns of ownership and tenure.
Language:
Persian
Published:
Scientific Journal of History Research, Volume:11 Issue:42, 2016
Pages:
69 - 94
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