Hepatitis B and its Relationship With Oxidative Stress
Message:
Abstract:
Context: Despite the great breakthroughs we have witnessed in the last 50 years in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of hepatitis B, we are still far from eradicating or even curing the disease. Achieving further progress in controlling this disease will not be possible without discovering the exact pathogenesis behind it. One prime suspect in the pathogenesis of various diseases is oxidative stress. This review will exclusively explore hepatitis B in the context of oxidative stress to obtain a more comprehensive clinical perspective on its pathogenesis and eventual medical therapy.
Evidence Acquisition: We systematically searched PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Scopus using an extensive list of keywords in the following three categories: 1) Hepatitis B and oxidation 2) Hepatitis B and antioxidant system 3) Effects of approved anti-hepatitis B drugs on redox status. All relevant articles were obtained and reviewed carefully after the exclusion criteria were deployed.
Results
There is great evidence indicating extensive oxidative stress occurs in hepatitis B. This oxidative stress takes place on multiple levels, including lipid peroxidation, DNA oxidation, protein oxidation, and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production. However, there are also conflicting results with regard to antioxidant therapy and antioxidant status in hepatitis B, some of which may be explained by the concept of “compensatory gaps.” Nevertheless, further studies are indicated to reach a more thorough judgment.
Conclusions
Despite the presence of vast oxidative stress in hepatitis B, antioxidant therapy is not always effective as a treatment strategy, especially considering that antioxidants can act as “double-edged swords” or antioxidants; if not used at the right time or place or in the right combination, these substances can easily become pro-oxidants. Therefore, several studies will be needed to determine suitable antioxidant therapies. We propose the “2-step Combined Antioxidant Adjuvant Therapy for hepatitis B (2CAAT Hep B)” as a new strategy for antioxidant adjuvant therapy. We also suggest developing an international platform and database for antioxidant adjuvant therapy in hepatitis B (IPAATH and IDAATH) to canalize this field of research in a standardized direction, especially when complexity is a problem.
Language:
English
Published:
Hepatitis Monthly, Volume:16 Issue: 9, 2016
Page:
1
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