Insight into the valuable elements of Sistan local architecture in relation to climatic factors of sustainable architecture
In this study, part of the native Iranian architecture of the Sistan region in terms of climate issues, techniques used in the construction of buildings and difficult environmental (climatic) issues are studied. Today, in sustainable architecture, the greatest attention is paid to climatic, environmental and green architecture issues alongside matters related to traditional and old architecture on a local and global level. Advanced technologies in construction and use of new materials in architecture has, on the one hand, created the suitable conditions for realizing exotic ideas and projects for architects and designers. These challenges and the need for paying attention to valuable elements of local traditional architecture indicate the necessity of undertaking research on climatic conditions and sustainable architecture. This research deals with parts of traditional Iranian architecture in the Sistan region in terms of climate, the techniques used in construction and difficult environmental conditions (climate) based on modern theories of sustainable architecture. The research question deals with the factors, climatic conditions and characteristics of architectural structures of Sistan region (indigenous and ancient) which can be utilized in modern Iranian architecture and be of use in contemporary design issues of climate architecture. The research methodology was based on two parts: a descriptive approach and field studies in part one and a comparison of the theoretical and climatic components of sustainable architecture with the structural elements of local Sistan architecture forms part two. In traditional Iranian architecture, discussions always focus on valuable strategies and methods of providing adequate living conditions in buildings. Different and variable climatic and geographic conditions throughout this land have forced architects with their innovative principles to provide the best and most appropriate ways of buildings adapting to climatic conditions. Since past-times, the use of natural and inexhaustible forces such as the sun and wind has commonly been used in Iran to improve the bio-thermal conditions of living spaces. These forces results in buildings saving fuel consumption and more importantly enhancing the quality, comfort and hygiene of residential environments. The research results indicate that centuries-old use of Kharkhona, Dorche, Kolak, Surak were suitable climatic solutions that are defined as a component of indigenous architectural principles in this region to combat the harsh climate and facilitate good living conditions. With little change in the structure of contemporary architecture, these solutions can be used to achieve sustainable architecture.
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