A Review of Obsidian Studies in Iran, Provenance the Source and Prehistoric Obsidian Artifacts, Researches and Questions

Obsidian artifacts is frequently used materials in prehistory and found widely in archaeological sites. Provenance studies of obsidian has been an issue of intense research and debate between archaeologists and geologists. Since different provenance studies has been carried out from 1960s up to 2015 in Anatolia and Caucasus but obsidian studies in Iran is in very early stage and consider as terra incognita. Recent research on obsidian mines in Iran accompanying by prehistoric obsidian provenance studies give this opportunity to establish of a database, as well as outlining a horizon and perspective for obsidian studies in Iran. This paper will try to discuss about old and new researches on obsidian studies in Iran. After a brief introduction of obsidian studies in Anatolia and Caucasus by Renfrew, Cann and Dixon, the paper addresses some recent researches that took place concerning obsidian provenance studies in Iran. Additionally this study also look for have a review and survey on obsidian sources in Iran as well as obsidian artifacts from sites like Kul Tepe Hadishah, Dava Goz Khoy, East Chia Sabz, Choga Gholan, Tepe Boinou, surveyed sites of East of the Lake Urmia, Typical sites like Yanik, Hasanlu, Pisdeli, and relationship and comparison of ancient obsidian artifacts with known sources in order to studying obsidian sources and provenance of obsidian artifacts in Iran. This research proved that most of the analyzed obsidian artifacts of Iranian archaeological sites originated and imported from Caucasus and Anatolia in line with long-term inter-regional trade, although a handful of obsidian mines and sources have been brought to light in NW Iran that could be considered as second part of the raw material to supply the demands of local and indigenous communities of the prehistory of Iran. The implications of the findings will discuss along with limitations and future research directions.
Journal of Research on Archaeometry, Volume:1 Issue: 1, 2015
55 to 85
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