Reviewing the musical component of rhythm of poetry and the factors influencing it
Rhythm’ is the most important component in the music of poetry. In this paper, in addition to defining rhythm, we have studied relative components which have most influence on the music of poetry. ‘Rhythm’ is the first common factor in different arts especially music and poetry. Poetry has always been along with rhythm.
A short and complete definition of ‘rhythm’ is: “Rhythm is the balance resulting from sequence of letters or rhythms at certain limited times”. The most important factors affecting rhythm are:
Proportion of syllables at prosodic rhythms: Every syllable has its special musical load at prosodic rhythms. It is clear that if each of them is mostly used at one rhythm, it will mostly and clearly show its own special state.
Sequence of syllables at prosodic rhythms: Succession of long or short syllables because of their special vocal effect on rhythm is very effective on the musical quality of rhythm.
Application of long syllable: The most the number of long syllables in a verse, the heavier will be the rhythm of the verse. Because in this way the number of syllables of every verse will be decreased and their temporal duration will be increased.
Conformity of the end of words with the end of elements (space between words with space between elements): conformity of the end of words and elements because of the repeated sequence of an element highly strengthens the effect of that prosodic element at the mind of the listener. These constant and repeated scansions make the poem rhythmic and enrich its music.
Making accidental or the second rhythm: one way for innovation and overcoming the natural music of a rhythm is making a special rhythm other than the main prosodic rhythm of poem by arranging the words in a special order in a way that it conforms to the other scansion of the same prosodic rhythm.
Using regular space between words other than space of elements: sometimes the poet without using a different scansion of the main rhythm can make syllable conformity between them by using a type of symmetry among the words of two or few hemistiches at the form of the same prosodic rhythm. This way of syllable symmetry which is hidden because it cannot be scanned on the basis of prosodic rhythm has a great but old and insensible effect on the music of poetry and this insensibility increases its value.
Using one or few prosodic seas (poetic meter) at one poem: sometimes this innovation at the use of prosodic rhythms is purposeful and for overcoming the constant music of that special prosodic rhythm and making a better conformity between rhythm and a new content which poet wants to speak about in a number of verses.
Using two seas or more: one way for enriching the musical component of ‘rhythm’ is applying the capabilities of prosody for making a poem have two or few rhythm at the same time. At Badii science these poems are called capricious. This possibility is because of the capacity of the words of poem for applying necessities.
Dori rhythm: Dori rhythm is a type of rhythm which divides the verses to four equal parts. Dori rhythm because of its features is of musical distinction and the component of ‘rhythm’ in every poem with the form of Dori rhythm is naturally more salient than the rhythms of other poems. On the other hand, because in Dori rhythm potentially it is possible to use internal rhyme and Radif, this feature makes more salient the musical component of ‘vocal harmonies’-including pun, harmonious, repetition and etc….
Silence at prosodic rhythms: This kind of silence at prosodic rhythms is not common among all rhythms. When the last element is Mozahaf, if the second hemistich without the necessary pause- which dependent on the type of rhythm, its duration is different-the rhythm will break. Quantity of the silence after each hemistich is equal with the total quantity of the syllables which have been deleted from the last element (Mozahaf) of that hemistich.
Necessities: Sometimes the necessity of applying the model of prosodic rhythm makes the poet deviate from the main quantity of vowel and change it, that is, sometimes poet necessarily uses long and short vowels instead of each other.
Poet’s authorities: In total, less use of poet’s authorities, which causes applying symmetry at hemistiches and most following the main rhythm used in every poem, makes the poem’s music more rhythmical. But it does not mean that use of them destroys the poem’s music.
12-1. Stoppage: Sometimes application of the authority of ‘quieting’ causes the musical feature of ‘stoppage’(pause in a verse).Stoppage as a musical feature which makes lack of fluency at the rhythm of poem has a negative effect on the music of poetry.
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