Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Garra in Karun, Karkheh, Dez, Tigris, and Mond Basins (Iran) using Cytochrom Oxidase subunit I
In this study phylogenetic relationships among Garra sp. in the Karun, Karkheh and Dez basins were compared to Garra rufa, Garra mondica and Garra typhlops in the Tigris, Mond, Karkheh and Dez Basins. A total of 26 Garra spp. specimens were collected from different localities in the Karun, Karkheh, Dez, Mond, and Tigris basins. The specimens were compared using Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI) sequences. In existing reports it is indicated that the members of the genus Garra in Karun and Dez Basins lack scales in the area between pectoral fins and in thorathic region, which discriminate them from G. rufa. Based on such differences the fish in Karun-Dez basins are named as Garra gymnothorax. In this study it was tried to compare genetic differences among specimens collected from above noted basins. To sequence the 5’ end of COI gene forward and reverse primers were used. For the phylogenetic analyses Niebuhr-joining and Maximum likelihood methods of phylogeny reconstruction were used and for the analysis of the relationships among different haplotypes a haplotype network was drawn. To compare the differentiation levels among the studied species, K2P distances were calculated. In total 10 haplotypes were observed for the specimens sequenced in this study. On the phylogenetic tree reconstructed three sub-clades were resolved. The average genetic distance between G. rufa and G. gymnothorax was 5.87%. The maximum and minimum genetic distances were observed between G. gymnothorax and Garra tibanica and G.mondica and Garra elegans, respectively. The mean genetic distance among G. gymnothorax haplotypes was 0.33%. Based on the results of this study it can be indicated that Garra specimens in the Karun, Dez, and Karkheh Basins differ from G. rufa and belong to G. gymnothorax, which is concordant with the morphological differences reported in other studies. Opposed to G. rufa that has a vast distribution in Tigris, Euphrates and the Iranian Basins including Mond and Kor Rivers, G. gymnothorax is only distributed in Karun-Dez and Karkheh Basins. This limited geographic span of G. gymnothorax besides its closer affinity to G. typhlops may indicate that the species has been originated in the Karun-Dez and Karkheh Basins. In conclusion it should be noted that in this study only one gene was used and to make robust inferences it would be better to use other genes especially nuclear genes such as RAG7, Rhodopsin and the Next Generation sequencing approaches using more specimens from other localities in Karun, Karkheh, Dez, and other aquatic systems adjacent to these systems.
Journal of Genetics, Volume:12 Issue: 1, 2017
61 - 69  
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