Evaluation effect of different solutions and seed priming treatments on germination, agronomic and quality characteristics of red bean genotypes
IntroductionSome techniques such as seed priming and exogenous applications before and during cultivation are effective on yield. Seed priming is one of the methods in seed enhancement that is used for increasing the germination of seeds and improving seedling growth. Seed priming increase seed activity, germination percentage, germination rate under different environmental conditions, it also decrease mean germination time. Deficit nitrogen is one of the main factors decreasing plant growth. Result showed that seed priming with Rhizobium increased grain yield in bean cultivars. Zinc is one of the essential micronutrients for the growth and human and animals activities. Zinc can contribute in cellular processes such as defense against free radicals, electron transmit, Auxin and protein biosynthesis, cellular reproduction and reproductive growth. Salicylic acid is a common plant-produced phenolic compound having key roles such as stomatal movement, seed germination, ion absorption, and responses to environmental stresses. The exogenous application of SA helped the activation of a range of plant defense genes, increased resistance to infection; decreased damages caused by exposure to ultraviolet light and ozone and improved drought tolerance in plants. The current paper studies the effect of different solutions and seed priming treatments on germination, agronomic and quality characteristics of red bean genotypes.
Materials & MethodsIn order to evaluate the effect of different treatments including solution and seed priming on germination, agronomic and protein characteristics at red bean genotypes, an experiment was carried out at laboratory and field. The research carried out as factorial experiment based on completely randomized design at laboratory and randomized complete block design with three replications in field conditions at 15 Km Arak road-Tehran in 2011. Factors were three red bean genotypes including Goli, Akhtar and D81088 and five levels of priming including control, distilled water, zinc sulphate, salicylic acid, and Rhizobium Leguminosarum Biovar Phaseoli in field conditions. At laboratory conditions, 25 bean seeds were planted in Petri dish as on paper. At field, bean seeds were planted 15 cm apart in 5-m rows, with a 40-cm spacing. At final harvest 2.4 m2 was harvested from the middle of each plot and the grain yield was evaluated. The data were subjected to analysis of variance using MSTAT-C. Means were compared using Duncan's Multiple Range Test at P=0.05.
Results & DiscussionResults showed that maximum germination percentage (94.67%) were record for Akhtar cultivar. The interaction effect of treatments showed that, the highest germination percentage (94%) was obtained from Goli cultivar along with solution of water distilled.
The effect of cultivar on daily germination rate was significant. The maximum daily germination rate (seed per day) was observed from Goli cultivar. Seed treatment with solution of salicylic acid and Rhizobium increased radical length and seedling weight vigor index traits. Treatment with salicylic acid and Rhizobium increased radical length by 17.9 and 13.8% compared with seed priming with water distilled. It seems that salicylic acid by adjusting the physiological process can increase radical length. The maximum seedling weight vigor index (6.39 g) was recorded for seed treatment with Rhizobium solution. Rhizobium produced cytokinin and therefore can increase cellular division, seedling weight and seedling weight vigor index. The maximum number of grain per pod (5.97) was recorded for Goli cultivar. Seed priming with zinc sulfate, salicylic acid and Rhizobium increased protein percentage by 1.8, 3.37 and 6.25% compared with control, respectively. The interaction effect of treatments showed that, the highest protein percentage (23.87%) was obtained from seed priming with Rhizobium in Goli cultivar. Seed priming with zinc sulphate, salicylic acid and Rhizobium increased grain yield in three genotypes more than priming with water distilled. Goli cultivar was the best in daily germination rate, plant height, and number of grain per pod, seed protein amount and grain yield traits; compared to other genotypes. Seed priming with Rhizobium, salicylic acid and zinc sulphate increased grain yield by 10.3, 9.9 and 8.6 %, compared to the control, respectively.
ConclusionIn general, results showed that the maximum of seedling weight vigor index (7.23 g) was record for Akhtar cultivar along with seed treatment with Rhizobium solution. The maximum grain yield (3143 kg/ha) and protein percentage (23.87%) was observed in Goli cultivar and Rhizobium priming.
Iranian Journal of Pulses Reseach, Volume:8 Issue: 1, 2017
60 - 72
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