Conjunctive Cohesion and its Application in Buhturi's Verses Describing the Wolf
IntroductionMost of the literary critics consider Arabic classical poetry as lacking cohesion and organic unity and believe that long Arabic odes do not have the necessary cohesion and do not have a good and ordered organization. But lack of cohesion in an ode as a whole does not indicate lack of cohesion in its various parts. That is, if an ode is divided into four parts, maybe there is no unity among its different parts but there is a special cohesion and harmony between the verses of each of these parts. The present study has been written in order to explain the cohesion between the internal parts of classical Arabic ode. Therefore, the verses describing wolf by Buhturi, the well-known poem of the Abbasid period, are criticized and analyzed through descriptive-analytical method and based on a part of Cohesion Theory of Michael Halliday, known as conjunctive cohesion, in order to obtain the application of this theory in Arabic descriptive poetry as part of long Arabic odes.
Theoretical FrameworkThere is a kind of cohesion called conjunctive cohesion. In this method, conjunctive devices create cohesion between textual propositions larger than a word, and establish linkage between the last and the next propositions (Khatabi, 1991). Hence, conjunctive cohesion means a semantic and logical relationship between the sentences of the text. Conjunctive cohesion is divided into four types of additive, causal, adversative, and temporal” (Lotfi Pour Saedi, 2006).
Therefore, there is a significant difference between this type of cohesion and other types of cohesion; because in this type of cohesion the connection between two sentences and two sections or narrative clauses is direct (Zanad, 1993). Some of these devices have an incremental function and add additional information and knowledge to the text and make the sentence more meaningful than the previous sentence. Sometimes, they also create an opposite and contradictory meaning in the text and are brought against the previous subject; but some of them are added to the text in order to create a result and they create a causal relationship between textual propositions or cause the creation of a temporal relationship in the text (Khatabi, 1991).
Research MethodThe present study tries to criticize and analyze this part of the ode through the descriptive-analytical method and according to Michael Halliday’s theory (Born in 1925) and the four factors of conjunctive cohesion, and measure the application and reflection of conjunctive elements in these verses and indicate their frequency, function, and implications.
Research Findings and Discussion- If we look at the most famous descriptive odes of classical literature, we will see that these odes have various types of additive relations. In the verses describing the wolf by Buhturi, this type of cohesion is seen in a beautiful manner; such that all the things in this part of the ode have been described correctly and completely and the reader is persuaded. These verses, using the functions of additive relation, have been able to look as a painting panel with inclusiveness of the elements, and provide a comprehensive picture of the battle scene to the audience.
- Any text may consist of a series of contradictory propositions and events that the writer expresses using adversative conjunctive elements. This subject is less used in descriptive texts due to the correlation and coherence of the descriptive elements; because the increasing use of this relation is when the text consists of different interactions and in some cases, these actions may be against each other. Although the verses describing the wolf by Buhturi have a set of semantic and structural contrast, these contrasts have less appeared in the text layout, and the poet has less used the devices of adversative relation.
- When the descriptive verses of Buhturi become dramatic with a moving aspect, a causal relation is created in them; and when he is merely describing and expressing the features of things, the causal relation becomes low in that; given the dominance of the descriptive element on the dramatic and narrative elements in these verses, the amount of using causal relation is lower in these verses.
- Buhturi, in his verses describing the wolf, after describing the night and the state of hunger and emaciation of the wolf, describes his battle with the wolf, in which temporal devices are seen increasingly. In addition, the description of his battle with wolf requires using a temporal relation because every event involves time. Therefore, in this part, we can see a sequencing and temporal continuity between the verses. So, the poet in this part has no way other than using the devices of temporal relation; for example, the words “Somma”, “Fa’”, and “Vav” have been used many times.
ConclusionFrom what has been mentioned in this study, the following results can be obtained:In these verses, the poet has described his battle with the wolf coherently and beautifully and has used conjunctive devices in different methods in order to give cohesion to the verses. The overall result of the research shows that Buhturi, using the factors of conjunctive cohesion, has been able to compose a cohesive poetry that its elements are related from the beginning to the end, and this link and cohesion has been achieved through a proper and logical use of these devices. Overall, additive devices such as reference “Vav” and also temporal devices such as “Fa’” have a great role in giving cohesion to these verses.
Article Type:
Research/Original Article
Journal of Arabic Language & Literature, No. 16, 2017
225 - 243  
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