The Essential Being and the Accidental Being in the Viewpoints of Mulla Sadra the Ishraqi Philosopher
The two philosophical terms essential being and accidental being are keys to the understanding of some of the most important foundations in transcendental theosophy. The present article is seeking to clarify the nature of these two terms in Mulla Sadra and its distinction from their meanings in the Isharqi (illuminative philosophy) viewpoint. This is because in the system of Ishraqs theosophy, the nature of essential and accidental beings is merely rational and subjective, with no objective determination, whether independent or abstract. In the system of transcendental theosophy, however, the existence is the essential being, and all its external attributions are accidental beings, requiring a mediator of attribution. This medium which makes those attributes to be metaphorically described as existent, and only abstractly actualizing them in the outside world, has its roots in the existential unitary relationship of those attributes with the core of existence. In Mulla Sadras view, these accidental beings have at least two instances as far as the various types of existential relationship are concerned: the primary intelligibles, and secondary philosophical intelligibles. Each of these two instances is metaphorically present in the real world in its unique way. The metaphorical existence of primary intelligibles is called nafaadi mode, and the metaphorical existence of secondary philosophical intelligibles is called indemaji mode.
Marifat-i Falsafi, Volume:15 Issue:1, 2017
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