Qualitative Investigation of Smoking Hookah among Youth of Jiroft City
Smoking Hookah is increasing among young people during last decades. This can be a risk factor for health and social life among individuals and families. Hookah is popular in the cultures of Africa, India, Afghanistan, Iran, the Middle East and Turkey; however, hookah culture is becoming increasingly popular in other parts of the world, and has become widespread among youths. The studies have shown that smoking hookah has turned into a social phenomenon that has become widely popular. In recent years, the prevalence of smoking hookah, has attracted the attention of different scholars. The aim of this study is to investigate the pattern and the context of smoking hookah by young people in Jiroft city (Kerman province, Iran) from their point of view and according to an interpretative approach. In this frame, we investigated the meaning and experiences of smoking hookah among young participants.
Materials And Methods
The study was conducted by qualitative approach. 47 young people of Jiroft city selected with purposeful sampling method and data collected by semi-structured interviews. In this way, the participants were encouraged to discuss the topic raised by introducing the topic of interview and, based on what the interviewee presents in the course of the interview, subsequent questions were formed. Interviews were conducted at the coffeehouses to allow the interviewee to discuss the natural process of smoking hookah in a natural setting. Participants were selected from different characteristics, in terms of age, education, occupation, and the age, in order to ensure that youth from diverse backgrounds are present in the interviews. The interviewees were assured that their statements will not create a legal issue for them. In order to obtain the consent of the participants, only those individuals were interviewed who had completed our consent form for the interview and were provided with information such as the subject of the research, the purpose and method of conducting the research, the guarantee of anonymity, privacy, and the method of reporting the research. The interview transcripts were analyzed by theoretical coding method at open, axial, and selective coding levels. After data coding, the 8 categories emerged.
Discussion of results &
8 main categories emerged after data coding.Categories included access to coffee shops, alternative usage, complementary, friend’s pressure, run away from family control, disorganized environment, smoking hookah by family members, curiosity and emotional curiosity. Family and friend’s hookah smoking and access to coffee houses was the main causal conditions for smoking hookah from the participants’ point of view. It can be concluded that smoking hookah is affected by social context and interactions that are suitable for smoking. The youth, especially those who are far away from family and parent supervision and who have tendency towards the hookah while away from the family, considered friends as the main cause for their smoking hookah. The presence of individuals besides their families, especially parents, or having friends who smoked hookah was significantly associated with the youth’s tendency towards hookah. Moreover, the frequency of observing smoking hookah by relatives resulted in reduced embarrassment of smoking it personally. This might even make it a desirable issue. Water pipes are conducive to social interactions, especially in café settings. Hookah smokers are particularly likely to also use other substances, especially alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis. It was expected that individuals who drink to enhance positive social outcomes, such as to enjoy a party, might also use hookah more frequently based on the social nature of hookah.
Article Type:
Research/Original Article
Strategic Research on Social Problems in Iran, Volume:7 Issue:1, 2018
65 - 80
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