Nosocomial Pneumonia in Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of a Tertiary Care Center in Mashhad, Northeast of Iran; an Etiologic Survey
BackgroundHospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) prevalence is related to patients population and diagnostic methods. HAP incidence is reported in different studies from 9% to 46%. The current study aimed at evaluating the etiology of HAP in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs).
MethodsThe patients admitted to ICU of Imam Reza hospital (a tertiary care and teaching hospital in Mashhad, Northeast of Iran) were evaluated for HAP based on the following criteria: fever, leukocytosis, purulent discharge, new radiologic findings, changes in O2 saturation, and ventilator setting. Blood and endotracheal aspirates cultures were performed for all patients. Demographic characteristics were recorded in a checklist.
ResultsAmong the 88 adult patients enrolled in the current study, the most frequent radiologic finding was patchy infiltration in chest X-ray (71.6%). Mean age of the patients was 58 ± 20.1 years; mean hospital stay was 63 ± 40.8 days; mean interval between hospitalization and pneumonia development was 20.9 ± 16.8 days; and 41 patients (46.6%) died. Acinetobacter spp. were the most frequent microorganisms in purulent discharge and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were the main bacteria isolated from blood culture.
ConclusionsEarly diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic therapy can decrease HAP mortality and morbidity. The current study findings revealed that Acinetobacter app. were the most frequent cause of HAP in ICU patients in the studied center, which should be considered at the time of diagnosis and empirical antibiotics administration. Appropriate infection control and preventive measures should also be taken in ICUs to prevent HAP, especially against those caused by Acinetobacter spp.
Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume:13 Issue:4, 2018
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