Assessment and Evaluation of Urban Smart Growth Indicators in Tabriz
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Abstract:
Introduction
Due to the increasing urban population, sprawl and horizontal growth of cities is inevitable. During the last half century, Horizontal growth of cities, that commonly called dispersion or sprawl growth, is taking place not only in developed countries but also in developing countries. Smart growth is used as a new model of urban planning, to manage the development process. Smart growth is a planned development in order to create higher density areas (compact urban form), integration activities and the development of the inner city, mixed use, walkable community development, reducing environmental pollution, increasing utility of public transport, accessing to urban services and the improvement of environmental quality. This model of urban planning, includes environmental, social and economic considerations and results sustainable development in urban areas.
The results of the studies indicate that sprawl and horizontal growth of Tabriz has run its upward trend since 1335. Lack of planning and the right contraption to stop sprawl growth, can doubled many existing problems, including the destruction of agricultural lands, reduce environmental and infrastructure facilities, integration of village, physical disorders and etc. Therefore, with a comprehensive look of smart growth pattern, Tabriz city can be benefited from this approach to managing its development.
Methodology
data collection method for studying, conclusions and determine the indexes and the core components of smart growth, is in the form of studying documents and libraries resources and also domestic and foreign research studies carried out in this field. Finally, access and communication, physical-land use, socio-economic and environmental issues are chosen as the main and dominant indicators for smart growth. Entropy and TOPSIS models are used to determine and analysis of smart growth set in each of the Municipality of Tabriz and Finally, each of Tabriz Municipality, have scored based on smart growth indexes. Finally, using documents and libraries resources, some of the components involved and effective in obtaining a high score were selected and analyzed and GIS and Isrisi software has been used to analyze, calculate and output the data.
Discussion
Smart growth is a simple phrase, but it has a complex concept and includes a set of principles for land use and transportation that is at odds with the dispersion. Smart growth is a thought toward creating comprehensive and holistic community. According to Bullard, this movement is seeking to growth management through the creation of healthy communities, habitable and sustainable. Smart Growth emphasizes on access; while sprawl growth emphasizes on mobility (physical movement) and car rides. Smart growth decreases distances between activities and supports different patterns. Sprawl growth, resulting in longer trips but is faster by car, while smart growth will result in shorter and slower trips. As the comparison between the two models, smart growth pattern more benefits than sprawl growth pattern and can help better to improve the quality of life in cities. Smart growth indexes are discussing about land use diversity, the access and the quality of the environment in relation to population density; therefore, land use capita and contribution of each of them are considered. How the proportion of public and mixed uses, building density, green space and open space, sidewalks and other public programs in areas are bigger, shows that it is smarter. Smart Growth has special emphasize on the use of public transport, development of sidewalks, encourage and create parking lots, limiting the adverse impacts (noise, odor and traffic), reducing air pollution, according to communications and physical infrastructure, according to the distance home and work, work and leisure, economic vitality, preserving cultural and historical places, reducing water pollution, improve public health and access to services and education.
Take a look at the development of the city of Tabriz in recent years and the high population, researchers have to do studies and researches, based on the principles of smart growth development of the city of Tabriz. In this research, Entropy and TOPSIS models are used to determine and analysis of smart growth set in each of the Municipality of Tabriz.
Conclusion
The horizontal extension of cities that is called sprawling was being happened like a phenomenon in last fifty years in developed and developing countries. Smart growth of cities is one of the modern patterns of urban planning for organizing city developments and a reaction against the sprawl developing of cities. Smart growth affects the better using of lands and planning process on transportation. Renewed forming of cities, guiding them for having exponent community or desirable access to environment is strategy of smart growth of cities. The aim of this research is to study and evaluate the criteria of smart growth with using of different aspects like economic – social, environmental, physical and accessibility and the approach of this research is descriptive – analytical. In is order it is used quantitative models of planning, TOPSIS multi-criteria decision-making methods for rank categories. The results show that the area1 in economic – social criteria, area3 in accessibility criteria, area2 in environmental criteria and area3 in physical criteria are the first priority in their categories. In the ultimate rank category area2 get the first priority and the area10 get the last priority. Due to the results zones are categorized in for groups:1. Ultra-development areas: area 2
2. Development areas: area 1
3. Moiety development areas: area 3, 4, 5, 6, 8
4. None development areas: area 7, 10
Due to staying the area2 in the first priority, it is evaluated and showed the proximity in elements of quality to the standard parameters with GIS software.
Article Type:
Research/Original Article
Language:
Persian
Published:
Geographic Space, Volume:18 Issue:62, 2018
Pages:
191 - 209
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