Diabetes Mellitus: laboratory findings and diagnosis in dogs and cats
Diabetes mellitus is a persistent hyperglycemia caused by a deficiency of insulin production or an interference with the action of insulin in target tissues. Although diabetes mellitus has been reported in virtually all animals it is most frequently found in dogs and cats. Estimate of the incidence of diabetes is 0.3%-0.6% for dogs and 0.43%-1.2% for cats. The disease in dogs occurs most frequently in the mature or older female, while male cats appear to be more commonly affected than females. Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia and weight loss are the main clinical signs observed in diabetic patients. Sever complications such as ketoacidosis and hyperosmolality might be occurred in some cases resulting in lethargy, reduced water intake and vomiting. Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus should be considered based on related clinical signs, persistent hyperglycemia and glycosuria. Repeating measurements of blood glucose level is necessary for diabetes mellitus diagnosis. However, hyperglycemia along with glycosuria and ketonemia in one sampling could also be diagnostic for the disease. Other laboratory tests including blood fructosamine and glycated hemoglobin and glucose tolerance tests can also be helpful in rule in or rule out of the disease. At the beginning of diabetes mellitus treatment, stablishing a serial glucose curve might be beneficial for finding the best dosage of insulin therapy. Blood and urine glucose, blood fructosamine and glycated hemoglobin are effective indices for evaluating successful insulin therapy.
Article Type:
Research/Original Article
34 - 50
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