Developing Dynamic Network DEA Approach and its Combination with Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets Theory Case of Passenger Airports’ Performance Based on Sustainability Principles
 Fuzzy DEA methods have been introduced to deal with the fuzziness of variables. Although, some of these variables are affected by uncertainty and also information granularity, the membership function of fuzzy set is certain and this contrasts with the fuzzy concept as a whole. Type-2 fuzzy sets are introduced because of this and their membership functions have the nature of fuzzy type-1. The calculations of type-2 fuzzy sets are very complicated. However, interval type-2 fuzzy sets which have the characteristics of type-2 fuzzy sets and do not add any complexity to the calculation process can be applied to deal with such a problem. That is why in this paper, it is explored that how an extension of interval type-2 fuzzy dynamic network DEA approach helps to measure airports’ sustainability. Sustainable airports play an irrefutable role in making transportation systems sustainable. Such an integrative approach in DEA models is unprecedented. So, this extension of DEA is valuable from both technical and conceptual aspects.
Airports are an essential component of aviation (Knudsen, 2004). The importance of airports becomes clearer when it comes to the fact that aviation traffic is more than before and, therefore, sustainability becomes difficult. While, various studies have suggested that the sustainability of airports is essential to improve the performance of these systems, improve the living conditions of the public and increase the airport's credit (Brian, 2005; ICAO, 2012; SAGA, 2015). Paying attention to the concept of sustainability in managing airports has various benefits, such as increased competitiveness by purifying activities, reducing operating costs, and reducing costs for life cycle of materials and equipment, better use of assets, utilization newer and better technologies, reducing asset development costs, getting more support from the community, improving working conditions and, as a result, improving employee productivity, reducing environmental risks, health, safety and promotion (SAGA, 2015; Bretzke, 2013; TRB, 2012; ACARE, 2011; Too, Earl, 2010). For the reasons mentioned, it can be said that it is necessary to pay attention to the sustainability of the passenger airports of the country. Certainly, before adopting any approach, the current situation must be assessed correctly. Various methods have been used to evaluate performance, but Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is one of the most widely used methods (Azizi et al. , 2004). Data envelopment analysis is a functional and nonparametric method that allows consideration of various components as input and output or intermediate activities (Bray et al. , 2015). However, no research has been found to determine the performance of airports in accordance with the principles of sustainability in Iran. 
Materials and Methods
Type-2 fuzzy Dynamic Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to assess the performance of Iran’s passenger airports based on sustainability development. By use of Dynamic Network Data Envelopment Analysis, one can see how the different parts of a decision unit can be linked. It also shows how the past performance of a decision-making unit can affect its current performance. In this type of data envelopment analysis, the function of the decision-making unit is transmitted through time-based intermediaries to the next period. Thus via using dynamic data envelopment analysis method, it is possible to consider the activities of different parts of a decision unit and also the efficiency with respect to time periods. However, the point is that in the real world, due to the increasing socioeconomic complexity and the inherent ambiguity of human thinking, there is no possibility of precise determination of many of the components. For this reason, type-2 fuzzy theory is employed that its membership function is the fuzzy of the first type. Since the complexity of calculations while using type-2 fuzzy set is high, interval type-2 fuzzy is applied. The 20 most popular passenger airports in Iran are selected to evaluate their performance in accordance with the principles of sustainability principles and via the help of the developed DEA model. 
Results and Discussion
Results of investigation show that Larestan Airport is the most efficient one among all and the last rank is allocated to the Isfahan airport considering fixed return to scale while in variable return to scale, Shiraz airport gets the last rank. The efficiency intervals of airports such as Larestan, Gorgan, Rasht and Yazd have little difference in two modes of return to scale. For this reason, we can say that there is no significant function inefficiency about these airports. But this difference is more evident in the efficiency of airports such as Mashhad. Airports, whose performance is generally low or are inefficient, are able to provide a groundbreaking improvement with appropriate benchmarking. Since airports operate in different conditions, difference in climatic conditions and the in workforce etc. should be considered while benchmarking.
Article Type:
Research/Original Article
journal of Production and Operations Management, Volume:9 Issue:2, 2018
23 - 36  
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