Evaluating Thermal comfort of an Adobe House in Lasgerj Village in Semnan Province
One of the important issues in the design of rural houses is thermal and climatic considerations. Thermal comfort and interior air quality may affect the health and satisfaction of residents. Researchers are looking for ways to lower the financial and environmental costs of heating and cooling buildings. The assessment of thermal comfort in indigenous buildings is important as it can help us to solve thermal discomfort through considerations such as the use of indigenous materials and appropriate design solutions. This research seeks to study the thermal comfort of a house in the Lasjard village of Semnan province, built in 2012 with the aim of constructing the resistant adobe house by using FRP materials. Environmental variables including air temperature and humidity in a cold winter day were measured at intervals of 15 min each time from 11 am to 19 pm. At the next stage, the total volume of the room and its adjacent spaces and details of the selected space, were simulated by InDesign Bidder Software with energy plus engine. Environmental variables were calculated by the software on that day and the results were compared with field data, which were similar to a large extent with them, and thus the accuracy of the software output was verified. Then, the thermal performance of the house throughout the year was predicted by using the Design Builder software. The annual thermal behavior of the considered space was calculated by Funkger method and was analyzed with ASHRAE standard. At the next stage, the results of the annual thermal performance and its relationship with architectural features were evaluated. This study shows that the heat transfer from the ceiling on the coldest day of the year, and the heat transfer from the window on the warmest day of the year, have had the most roles in energy waste. The results of this study indicates that despite the use of adobe in the construction of the building, due to lack of attention to climate issues in architectural design and thermal bridges of openings, the constructed building was located less than 10 percent of the year without natural ventilation in comfort zone. In months when the air temperature is outside the thermal comfort range, comfortable conditions can be provided by adjusting the amount of the humidity. Also, by identifying the effective factors in reducing the building temperature, it became clear that air penetration from the seams of windows, doors and walls, and also heat transfer from the walls had the greatest contribution to reduce indoor temperature. Accordingly, it is better to use two strategies of using seals and reduction of air penetration into the building besides insulation of the walls and ceilings as operational strategies in order to extend comfortable hours. Also, the windows as the luminaire wall, have the best performance in increasing the temperature of the building, and given that the heat transfer through the windows due to their two-sidedness is negligible, it is suggested that more luminaire walls in this building are used. One of the ways to increase the luminaire wall in this building could be changing a part of the dome-shaped roof of the building from adobe materials to double-glazed windows. The important issue is the dimensions of the room in the design. In a simple word, the smaller the space, the easier to heat and cool. Another common feature in the mentioned spaces is suitable materials. The use of adobe, bricks and mud, due to their high thermal capacity throughout the year, will enhance thermal comfort. The number and dimensions of windows and openings, neighboring spaces and their orientation are the other important issues in design which effect on the thermal comfort.
Article Type:
Research/Original Article
Housing And Rural Environment, Volume:37 Issue: 163, 2018
47 - 60
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