The evaluation of “repetition" from the formalistic point view
The second decade of the twentieth century is the beginning of a massive transformation in literary theory which was called later "formalism". The outstanding feature of this school was breaking with literary norms belong to the past and discover the secret of "literary" in a literary work. The aim of the founders of this school, that became well-known as the Russian formalists, was finding a scientific basis for literary criticism. The first step in this regard was taken by “Viktor Shklovsky" With the publication of "Doom words" in the 1914 (Ahmadi, 1384: 39). Formalists examined the literary works without any background, and pay attention just to the text itself in literary criticism and believe that the literary work must be viewed in terms of its literary.
Defamiliarization is the main principle of the Russian formalism school which present to audience common things in an unfamiliar or strange way in order to enhance perception of the familiar. The first person who applied this concept comprehensively was "Shklovsky", who wrote in “art as technique”: “The purpose of art is to impart a sensation of things as they are perceived not as they are known". The technique of art is to make objects "strange or unfamiliar", to make forms difficult, to increase the difficulty and length of perception, because the process of perception in it is an aesthetic end and must be prolonged (Sojudi, 1380: 60).
Defamiliarization is a technique to create beauty and make new relations between objects and phenomena. This technique takes place in two categories, musical and linguistic that they include all features of poetic language such as music, imagery, expressive features and languages and leads to the poetic's language become more recognition and prominence than prose (Hoseini, 1382: 79). Different species of defamiliarization such as deviation and synergy amazes the reader, and new emotions and thoughts reveal in his mind.
Whenever a meaningful deviation from standard language norms and rules take place then deviation occur. Deviation process causes art ambiguity in the poetry of poets and the mind of audience in the faced with defamiliaristic try to order the elements of sentence and effort to understand the relationship between its elements and this delay/pause which happen to comprehend the poets, make reader more pleasure.
Synergy unlike deviation isn't deviation of norm language, but additional language rules are applying, and thus it is naturally distinct from deviation aspect (Safavi, 1380: 50). The rule of synergies and the result of it (balance) first time were raised by Jacobson.
A significant portion of the construction of musical poetry is based on verbal repetition and balances. These repetitions are varied and include variety of levels. Sometimes this repetition is due to homophonic phonemes in a literary work; on the other hand it is due to repetition of consonants and vowels and sometimes due to repetition of a set of nominal, adjectival and adverbial, etc. words or groups or finally the repetition of a sentence throughout a poem in the level of bits and paragraph. The great and famous poets of this technique consider induction of secondary meaning and emphasis on subject matter. To dominate the Persian language features, they try to take advantage of language resources and to obtain their own style
Literary Arts, Volume:10 Issue:4, 2019
89 - 104
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