How much is the use values of forest ecosystem services? Case study: north forests of Iran
Forests play a significant role for human’s well-being. Economists’ attention is mostly drawn on the market value of forest products. The trend, however, is changing as non-market values of forests are increasingly appreciated and measured. Recently, the ecosystem value of forest has been studied by natural resource economists and its role on human welfare is ensured. This paper indicates that the annual use value of the ecosystem services such as water conservation, soil protection, carbon fixation, nutrient cycling, water purification, air pollution absorption and recreation provided by forests is not only worth millions of dollars, but also in per hectare terms much more than hitherto known. This value for the Mazandaran forest reserve (MFR) ranged US$ 14.2–14.8 million or about US$ 6676.9–6785.6 per ha. If these are accounted for, then governments and societies faced with the development versus conservation dilemma can create more understanding decisions and policies that will assist conserve forests and the ecosystem services they provide, and thereby promulgate human well-being and sustainable development. Realization about these significant intangible benefits will assist in more informed decisions and policies that will help conserve forest ecosystems and the services they provide as well as promote human well-being and sustainable development.
Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:4, 2019
379 - 394
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