Effects of biological and organic fertilizers on morphological parameters and chamazulene yield of German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) under drought stress condition
In order to evaluate the effects of water stress and fertilizer on yield and quality of chamomile (Marticaia chamomilla L.), a field experiment was conducted based on split plots design with three replications in the research farm of Jiroft Jahad-e Agriculture Organization, in 2010. The experimental treatments included water stress as main plot in three levels: 40, 80 and 120 mm evaporation from the class A evaporation pan, and fertilizer as sub plot in five levels: control, nitroxyn, bio-phosphate, biosulfore, and cow fertilizer. The traits measured included the number of main stem, number of lateral branches, plant height, number of capitol per plant, capitol diameter, plant dry matter, flower fresh and dry weight, essential oil content, and chamazulene yield. The results showed that the effects of drought stress on all qualitative and quantitative traits were significant (P≤0.01). Means comparison showed that the yield was reduced by 25.1 % in irrigation after 120 mm evaporation, compared to the control. The highest yield and yield componentswas obtained from irrigation after 40 mm evaporation with application of cow fertilizer. The highest values of essential oil percentage (0.85%) and essential oil yield (6.32 kg ha-1) were observed in the treatment of moderate stress and biosulfore. In addition, the highest chamazulene percentage (6.45%) and chamazulene yield (396.8 kg ha-1) were obtained from the nitroxyn and biosulfore fertilizer treatments in the moderate stress condition. Generally, the results showed that cow fertilizer in the severe stress and biosulfore in mild stress conditions were the best treatments in chamomile production.
Iranian Journal of Medical and Aromatic Plants, Volume:34 Issue:6, 2019
949 - 962
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