Investigation of Seed Germination Indices and Anthocyanin Content of Niger (Guizotia abyssinica) Seedling under the Effect of Three Nanoparticles
The use of nanotechnology as a diverse and applied discipline is ongoing in almost all areas of science. Fertilizers and nano-nutrients have the effective properties which help the production of plants depending on their needs to regulate the plant growth. Plants under stress conditions are willing to produce natural nanoparticles to continue their growth. Nano TiO2 has a high photocatalytic effect and as a catalyst, it is mainly used in water, electronic devices, conversion and storage equipment of Energy as suspension. Sources of SiO2 are very diverse, including natural nanoparticles, anthropogenic particles and engineering nanoparticles. Although, silicon in many crops is not an essential element for growth, it has beneficial effects on plants growth and development. Today, carbon nanotubes are one of the most important materials in industrial programs. These materials, with different methods and specific properties, can play an important role in the production of composite materials, application in medicine, electronic and energy storage. The Niger plant, with the scientific name of Goizotia abyssinica (L.F) Cass, belongs to the Asteraceae family. Its seed, are used in pharmacy, food industry, green manure and for feeding birds and cows. Therefore, the purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effect of type and concentration of three nanoparticles on some of germination characteristics and anthocyanins content in Niger medicinal-oily plant.  
Materials and Methods
In order to evaluate the effect of three nanoparticles on seed germination of Niger, an experiment was conducted as factorial in a completely randomized design with four replications. The treatments of TiO2, SiO2, and CNT were as the first factor while their concentrations in four levels (zero, 10, 30 and 60 mg/l) were as the second factor. In this study the traits of germination percentage, germination rate and mean of daily germination, germination and vigour index, length, fresh and dry weight of radicle and plumule, anthocyanin content and radicle resistance percentage were measured.   
The germination percentage, germination rate and mean of daily germination decreased by increasing of nanoparticles concentration. The favorable effect of TiO2 on germination index at the concentration of 30 mg/l and radicle dry weight at the concentration of 10 mg/l, was gained compared to control. The positive effect SiO2 on germination index and radicle dry weight at the concentrations of 10 and 60 mg/l, the anthocyanin content and the fresh and dry weight of plumule at the concentration of 60 mg/l was obtained compared to control. Also, the appropriate effect of CNT on germination index at the concentration of 10 and 30 mg/l, the anthocyanin content and radicle dry weight at the concentration of 60 mg/l and plumule fresh weight at the concentration of 30 mg/l, was observed.
According to the results of this study, it seems that the effect of nanoparticles in plants, in addition to the plant, species, type and concentration of nanoparticles, varies depending on the growth stage and physiology of the plant. It seems that nanoparticles at some concentrations can increase the water absorption of seeds and increase seedling growth with their positive effects. Anthocyanins are produced by exposure to stress due to their antioxidant activity. In general, it can be stated that increasing the concentration of nanoparticles caused and increased the oxidative stress in plant. Therefore, it is recommended by investigating the bad effects of nanoparticles on plants, if necessary, use nanoparticles at low concentrations (less than 60 mg/l) to increase the plant's efficiency.   Highlights: The effect of nanoparticles kind and concentration on seed germination indices and anthocyanin content of Niger seedling. Investigating the interaction of nanoparticle type and concentration as the physical priming factor of seeds on seed germination of multi-purpose Niger plant.
Article Type:
Research/Original Article
Iranian Journal of Seed Research, Volume:5 Issue: 2, 2019
73 - 89  
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