The Influence of Lime in Adobe Optimization Against Humidity
The importance and the value of historical buildings and sites and even villages which have adobe houses causes that conservators annually schedule restoration plans and programs to protect the buildings from hazards. This is done because conservation of these memorials is equal to conservation of culture, civilization, heritages of a nation, their architecture, and their lifestyle. There are many damaging factors for an adobe building being always a threat for its skeleton. Causing irreparable harms independently or dependently, moisture is one of the damaging factors for adobe buildings. Optimizing the repairing materials in conservation, repair, and reconstruction of adobe buildings to increase their resistance against moisture and other damaging factors is one of the suitable methods for protecting these buildings worldwide. Until today, many additive materials have been tested and occasionally applied regarding the enhancement of the physical and environmental properties of the buildings. Lime is a conventional locally supplied material, had been originally used in areas with high humidity and heavy seasonal rainfall. In this research a number of buildings in the North and North West of Iran have been selected as the case study where the lime was used as the adobe optimizer. This research aims to find a mix of adobe which is compatible with the highly humid environment (saturated adobe) as well as having high physical quality and a relative strength against other damaging forces. Now, the question is that by adding lime to soil as a traditional material that absorbs water and is resistant to moisture, can it be possible to increase the stability of these adobe against moisture, as well as their physical properties to keep compressive resistance and abrasion resistance? The research hypothesis suggests that because of low adhesion and poor bonding between lime and soil and low humidity in open spaces, it is likely that by adding lower percentages of lime, a more favorable result can be achieved.  For this aim, five mix of adobe were made containing 0, 2, 5, 7 and 10 percentage of lime. The samples undergone multiple mechanical tests: compressive resistance in dry and saturated condition, abrasion resistance, capillary absorption and resistance to immersion tests. The results show that lime is affective on physical properties of adobe in such a way that by increasing the amount of lime aforementioned, the compressive strength and abrasion resistance decreases by a significant amount. Capillary test results show that, the increase in the amount of lime in the mix causes the increase in the speed of capillary absorption. This characteristic of lime causes using preparing adobes having lime in reconstruction of walls be an ideal solution to conserving the old  internal wall adobes. This is because the exposure of water and moisture are absorbed by this kind of adobe due to the higher level of lime concentration in the mix portion and the main old structure of the wall absorbs the minimum amount of the water and remains safe from abrasion. Based on the results of pressure resistance test on the wet and dry adobe samples and also their resistance against immersion, only 2% added lime cause to keep the physical resistance of adobe compares to the other samples, impressively. According to the results of the tests done in this research and its purpose, among tested adobe samples, the sample number 2 having 2% added lime is estimated as the best optimized sample. In this way, its resistance to compressive and abrasion is higher than other lime samples, as well as its resistance to water immersion and its compressive strength after soaking from all specimens, even the lime sample was higher This optimization of the crude clay and its resistance to water saturation conditions is the same as the desired result and the purpose that this research seeks to do.
Article Type:
Research/Original Article
Housing And Rural Environment, Volume:37 Issue: 164, 2019
115 - 124  
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