Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is the third cause of hospital-acquired renal failure and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Several studies have revealed the protective role of omega-3 in prevention and treatment of some kidney injuries. This study was conducted to examine the effect of omega-3 supplementation on the markers of renal function and to evaluate its potential in the prevention of CIN in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial, 85 eligible patients scheduled for PCI was randomly divided into omega-3 (a single 3750 mg dose of omega-3 as well as routine hydration therapy within 12 hours before PCI) or control (placebo plus routine hydration therapy) groups. Serum creatinine (SCr) and cystatin C levels were measured at baseline and 24 hours after PCI.
Our results indicated that post- PCI cystatin C levels were significantly decreased in the omega-3 group compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Although less upward manner was seen in the level of 24-hour creatinine in the omega-3 group, it did not reach the significance level (P = 0.008).
The positive effect of omega-3 on cystatin C levels showed that it may have a protective role in the prevention of CIN in post-PCI patients with normal kidney function. However, to better assess this effect, it is highly recommended to design future studies with higher doses and longer duration of therapy with omega-3 plus long-term follow up.