Socio-economic Complexities in Central Plateaue of Iran during 5th Millennium B.C. on the Basis of Pottery Technology
The expansion of socio-economic complexities in Central Plateaue of Iran (CPI) occurred during the transitional and early chalcolithic Periods (5th millennium BCE). Methodology of the present research based on the analysis of pottery data and some other backup and complementary evidences of the 5th millenniume BCE which have been discovered in Qazvin and Tehran Plains’ archaeological surveys, newly added sites’ excavations such as Chahar Boneh and Ebrahim Abad, reexcavations of some prehistoric sites such as Zaghe, Qabrestan and Sialk, and finally, laboratories researches and chronological studies in CPI region. Pottery production which was commonplace in the form of household in the half of the 6th millennium BCE in CPI’s societies, gradually, was specialized due to improving of the pottery production and painting from Sialk I1-3 to Sialk I4-5. The important changes that occurred in this period are included: the increasing of prehistoric sites in Tehran Plain; the producing of counting objects in Zagheh; putting gifts made of non-native raw materials in the graves of Zagheh; the appearance of elegant and red pottery of Cheshmeh Ali in the area of CPI; and production and baking of pottery in advanced furnaces in Tepe Pardis. Most of mentioned evidences certificates on the prevalence of workshop production activities in this period. Some important developments, such as advances in architecture, metalworking and pottery, took place from the early Chalcolithic (Sialk III1-3) to the late Chalcolithic (III6-7b). Also, the evidences of copper ore melting were obtained in Qabrestan and Sialk in this period. The existence of planning and organization in the societies of the 5th millennium BCE in CPI is proven by the use of potter's wheel, the exploitation of advanced pottery furnaces, the decoration of interior and exterior surfaces of potteries with geometric, plant, animal, human and narrative designs, and using characteristics such as proportionality, symmetry, composition and framing are the reasons of the specialized production.
نشریه پژوهش های باستان شناسی ایران, Volume:9 Issue:20, 2019
21 - 36
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