Groundwater Quality Zoning for Agricultural and Drinking Usage Using Water Quality Index and Geostatistics Techniques in Semnan Watershed
Determination of water quality is an essential issue in water resources management and its monitoring and zoning should be considered as an important principle in planning. In this study, in order to investigate the quality of groundwater resources (springs, wells and qanats) in Semnan watershed, first, the water quality index for drinking and agricultural purposes was obtained by means of measuring SO4, Cl, Na, Mg, PH, EC, SAR, TDS in 55 groundwater sources. For calculating the parameters weight in WQI, the fuzzy hierarchy analysis process was used with the Chang's development analysis. Due to the lack of sampling points for zoning of the entire area, regarding the existence of EC data for the majority of groundwater resources used in this catchment (354 sources), as well as the high correlation (Adjusted R2=0.99) between WQI with EC, the mentioned indexes of other resources were estimated based on the regression relationship with EC. To analyze the spatial distribution and monitor the zoning of the groundwater quality, the ArcGIS version 10.3 and Geostatistical method such as simple Kriging and ordinary Kriging were used; additionally certain methods including Inverse distance weighting and Radial Basis Function were utilized. The performance criteria for evaluating the used methods including Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), %RMSE and R2 were used to select the appropriate method. Our results showed that the ordinary Kriging and Radial Basis Function were the best methods to estimate the groundwater quality.
Journal of Hydrology and Soil Science, Volume:23 Issue:1, 2019
187 - 198
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