Survey on some manifestations of moderateness and violence in Nizami Ganjavi’s Khamsa
Persian old literature has always proclaimed kindness and moderateness and has avoided violence, dispute and vengeance. Therefore, Iran society and history has passed through different and stressful paths. Literature represents a vague and blurred image of uncontrolled violence in its deep layers though disputes and war has woven with Iranian society warp and woof. Nizami Ganjavi is one of the Iranian poets and advocate of peace that love and friendship is felt in his poems. However, in the depth of his works, the traces of the mentality based on violence and lack of moderateness can be found unintentionally. For instance, war is one of the main content of Nizami poems and even the traces of violence can be seen in the realm of love. The lover Majnun tends to act violently for possessing of Leila, in Makhzanoal- Asrar(Treasure of Mysteries) two scholars with different scientific viewpoints debated so that they are ready to kill each other and finally, Alexander destructs the Zoroastrian temples violently and abolishes their religious rituals and put fire on their magnificent cities and transfers Iranians academic texts to Macedonia. On other hand, the manifestations of moderateness in Nizami verse are wonderful. Shirin invites Khosrow to moderation and hospitality of the people. Bahram prevents war with his compatriots with intelligent planning and the kings respond the protestors.
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