Assessing suitable locations for the recharge of the Paraw-Bisetun karst aquifer using KARSTLOP model
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Abstract:
Underground water is one of the most important global natural resources for communities as well as for agricultural and industrial activities. Considering the unique weather conditions in Iran, lack of rainfall, distribution and timing of inadequate space, shortage of water resources in terms of quality and quantity and the widespread expansion of Karst Formation throughout the country, the study of water resources of karst is very important. The main characteristics of feeding area in the karstic aquifers impact on the type of feeding, flow and the vulnerability of aquifers. Therefore, identification of the feeding areas in karstic aquifers plays a key role in assessment of the hydrodynamic and hydrochemical properties of aquifers, as well as their scientific and optimal management and utilization. Karstic water resources are the most important water supplies in the Kermanshah province. The Paraw-Bisetun aquifer is located within the carbonate rocks domain of the high Zagros mountains. Due to its high altitude and precipitation, it is susceptible to karst conditions, as witnessed by its particular geomorphology and the developed karst features such as sinkholes, uvalas, and caves. The karstic aquifer of Paraw-Bisetun has 15 important springs, supplying water for drinking and agriculture in the neighboring area. In this research, the KARSTLOP model was used to model the locations of feeding areas of the Paraw-Bisetun aquifier. The KARSTLOP model abbreviated to the first letters of the eight layers K: karstification process (Karst development), A: Weather conditions, R: Runoff, S: Slope, T: Tectonic, L: Geology, O: Covering layer and P: Vegetation. This model can be implemented in the Arc GIS software environment and the individual judgment of the researcher is involved in the selection of analytical parameters and definition of evaluation criteria and algorithm. To determine the source of water karsticity of the springs fed from the Paraw-Bisetun aquifer, to perform hydrological and hydrochemical calculations related to them, and to prepare their Piper diagrams, the RockWare Aq.Qa and the PHREEQC software were used to calculate the saturation ratio. The Fill Sink method was used to extract the sinkhole from a 10 meter DEM of the study area and field observations were performed to identify the surface karst geomorphology, to record the position of landforms and to verify the accuracy of the results of the Fill Sink method. Investigation of the hydrochemical characteristics of the outlet springs of the Paraw-Bisetun aquifer indicates the calcific facies and the carbonate type of these springs, relevant to their karstic origin. Also, the molar ratio determination indicates that low durability of water in the aquifer and reflects the presence of limestone in the feeding area of the springs. According to the final map of the KARSTLOP model, the percentage of feeding aquifer is between 44.2 and 88.7%, of which 70-80% of the area with the highest area is 65% of the area, corresponding to its central regions spanning from north-west to south-east. Subsequently, the 60-70 percent floor, with an area of 24 percent, is in line with the margins of the aquifer. The floor with a nutritional level of more than 80 percent is located in the upper high point and parts of the plain areas of the other mountains of the region, which is in accordance with the rock outcrop of the Bisetun carbonate formation with the highest density of faults. In general, it can be deduced that the aquifer of Paraw-Bisetun has a high nutritional potential due to carbonate rocks outcrop and without soil cover in most of the regions, so that about 96% of the aquifer area has a 60% higher nutritional potential. The high percentage of nutrition of the aquifer and the distribution of spatial areas of the feeding area, which indicates the dominance of centralized penetration by the sinkholes and vertical caves in the highlands, suggests that for the discussion of contamination and its prevention, it requires conservation and management plans. The high percentage of nutrition of the aquifer and the distribution of spatial areas of the feeding area, which indicates the dominance of centralized penetration by the sinkholes and vertical caves in the highlands, suggests that for the discussion of contamination and its prevention, it requires conservation and management plans. The high percentage of nutrition of the aquifer and the distribution of spatial areas of the feeding area, which indicates the dominance of centralized penetration by the sinkholes and vertical caves in the highlands, suggests that for the discussion of contamination and its prevention, it requires conservation and management plans. The high percentage of nutrition of the aquifer and the distribution of spatial areas of the feeding area, which indicates the dominance of centralized penetration by the sinkholes and vertical caves in the highlands, suggests that for the discussion of contamination and its prevention, it requires conservation and management plans.
Article Type:
Research/Original Article
Language:
Persian
Published:
quantitative geomorphological researches, Volume:8 Issue:1, 2019
Pages:
1 - 15
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