The Critique and Examination of Most Jurists Viewpoints on Fulfillment of First-degree Murder
Most of Imamiyah jurists believe that the criterion for fulfillment of first-degree murder is the purpose of the murder or often the instrument of the murder as being deadly. They have resorted to the narrations and consensus to prove their own theories. However, the narrations do not explicitly argue the most famous jurists' claim because first, the condition for fulfillment of the first-degree murder in narrations is the intention of the action. Apparently, based on the narrations, the intention of murder cannot be proven. Second, in narrations, there are only a few instances of frequently deadly actions mentioned in the narrations, and a few instances cannot be a general criterion for fulfillment of the first-degree murder. Third, the phrase "Bima Yaqtol Bemesleh" which has been used in many narrations is not considered as a criterion for often being deadly. However, in Islamic jurisprudence, and according to the most jurists' viewpoints, there are various instances of murder that are considered first-degree murder. However, these are not the most jurists' desired criteria. Fourth, consensus is not the condition for fulfillment because by ignoring the breach of promise, such consensus is based on evidence. Fifth, intention is an inner state and cannot be understood without expressing the intention by the intender. Therefore, the criterion of intention for the murder in the outside world is not very practical. In addition, the term "often being deadly" is an ambiguous concept. This concept has not been defined in Islamic jurisprudence and law and is limited to instances. So, it cannot be considered as a useful and salient criterion. It seems the best criterion for fulfillment of the first-degree murder is that the murderer must be subjected to the murder and be aware of that. This criterion is reinforced with some of the confirmed jurisprudential and legal viewpoints.
Article Type:
Research/Original Article
Journal of fiqh, Volume:26 Issue: 97, 2019
103 - 127  
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