The Effect of Westernization (Golfarang) on Kashan's Architecture Decoration and Carpets
The design and role of Golfarang is one of the most popular designs in the field of traditional art and carpet design. The motifs called roses or flowers and bird originate from Western Art, and most scholars regard this motif as an ancient western motif. The Golfarang motif of the Safavid era has been brought to the Iranian art with the advent of westernization, and the Qajar era has been its peak. This motif comes from the very beginning in all artistic fields such as painting, layout, tile and plastering, but carpet art is the last area under the influence of westernization. Perhaps the reason for this is the continuity and sustainability of traditions in the design and texture of the carpet. The Qajar period shows itself in the design of Golfarang Kashan Carpet; it is initially used in combination with traditional designs. During the first Pahlavi Period, the variety of Golfarang increased and the principles of naturalism are also being considered in its design. In Qajar era, Kashan carpet weaving has been more influenced by Western Art, because the effects of westernization in Kashan are greater, and for this reason, Golfarang motif in Kashan, soon became a carpet design. Golfarang design and motif is one of the nineteenth designs in the division of Iranian carpet designs and motifs. The purpose of this research is to study the design and Golfarang motif in historical houses and carpets in Kashan in a comparative manner, and to examine their similarities and differences. The Golfarang design has been used more in Kashan. There are many resources, such as houses and historical buildings, including the Borujerdi House, Tabātabāei House, each of which is rich in variety of Golfarang motif, is one of the important reasons for the diversity of Golfarangs in this city. In fact, the existence of Golfarang in houses and historical buildings reflected the designs of the carpets of the time. Meanwhile, the role of skilled Kashani painters should not be ignored. Of course, in each of the historical periods of the Qajar, Pahlavi I and Pahlavi II, we have undergone changes that we examined. The type of research done is development (assessment) and descriptive-comparative-analytical, and the method of doing it is library and field. The statistical population in this research is the decorative images of Kashan's historical building architecture as well as the Golfarang Carpet of this city. Due to the widespread nature of the statistical population, selective sampling has been used. In addition, for the purpose of analyzing the results, a quantitative method has been used for the number of Golfarang designs, and the qualitative method has been used for discourse analysis. In this research, we tried to describe the comparative analysis of Golfarang (westernization) designs in carpet and rugs of Kashan using historical information (written sources) and documents and photographs provided by direct observation. In this research, we have two groups of statistical society. Historical houses of Kashan: Borujerdi House, Tabātabāei House, Āmeri House, Abbāsi House, Agha Bozorg Mosque and School and Sultan Amir Ahmad Bathhouse. The other statistical population is a sample of carpets in Kashan, which has Golfarang designs. Carpet weavers and designers could easily bring Golfarang design into the field of carpet design. As a result, Golfarang motif has become more common in Kashan carpets and westernization has created harmony with traditional arts in this city. The least influences of Golfarang motif in Kashan are related to the Safavid Era and most of them are related to the Qajar era. So that during Qajar period in Kashan, they used more Golfaran designs in carpets. In this period, the classic and traditional designs combined, for example, over horns on arabesque design. In general, Qajar Golfarang designs used in Kashan carpets are often a combination of Iranian and Western flowers, and they are usually light-weight, flat and simple, and lack shades of light. The colors used in Kashan's Golfarang carpets are mainly based on the color motifs used in Kashan carpets. Navy blue, dark and light red, yellow, golden, light cream, yellowish cream, light and dark blue, green, coral, are the main colors used in this carpet. Navy blue, red and in particular, cream, are the main colors used in these carpets. In Kashan, from the Qajar period, Golfarang designs in the carpet were used, and during the Pahlavi era, Golfarang designs used more than other designs had lots of variety. Golfarang were domesticated in Kashan and were mixed with classical designs.
Journal of Jelve-y Honar, No. 49, 2019
43 - 52
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