Staphylococcus aureus is known as the causative agent of various infections in humans, and the nasal cavity is the main anatomical site for storing and spreading this pathogen in health care workers (HCWs) in hospital settings. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains are resistant to many antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of S. aureus strains isolated from the nasal carriage of HCWs in a referral hospital in Zabol.
A total of 277 HCWs of Amir-Al-Momenin hospital of Zabol participated voluntarily in this study from March to September 2017. Demographic information was collected using questionnaire. Bacterial isolates were collected from anterior nasal canal using cotton swabs. MRSA isolates were detected by Oxacillin Screen agar and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibiotic resistance was assessed by the disk-diffusion method.
In total, 10.8% of HCWs were carriers of S. aureus and 46.7% of the isolates were found to be MRSA. Laboratory staffs were the most frequently colonized HCWs. All the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin and gentamicin. The highest resistance rate (64.3%) of MRSA isolates was observed against erythromycin.
Our findings showed that gentamycin and rifampin might be useful to eradicate S.aureus. Regular screening of HCWs and assessment of antibiotic resistance profile are essential to prevent MRSA dissemination in hospitals.