Epigenetics contains studying inheritable genetic variations that affect on gene expression pattern, but these variations do not create because of changes in DNA sequence. In addition, organisms are resistant to pathogens through some molecular and cellular mechanisms. Thus, the purpose of this review was to overview interaction between epigenetics and defense system of organisms and highlight recent findings in epigenetic regulation of organism-microbe interaction with focusing on role of histone modifications and DNA methylation of host genome in resistance to disease and defense priming. Hence were discussed creating mechanisms of epigenetics regulations, role of DNA methylation in plant-microbe interaction, role of RNA-mediated DNA methylation in plant-microbe interaction, histone modifications, post-translational modiﬁcations of histones in plant-microbe interaction, role of epigenetics and microRNAs in animal health, epigenetic control of defense priming and transgenerational inheritance and epigenetic regulation in plant pathogenes and effects on pathogenesis.
It was demonstrated that epigenetic inheritance can provide animals and plants with long-term and short-term mechanisms to adapt to specific environmental conditions. Reviewing results of performed studies by different researchers have provided clear evidence for the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in transgenerational defense priming.
Moreover, more understanding of how epigenetic mechanisms contribute to animal and plant defence and how pathogens may counteract this reaction can provide new possibilities for novel production protection strategies.