Role of Schwann Cells in Preservation of Retinal Tissue Through Reduction of Oxidative Stress

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of subretinal injection of Schwann cells on preservation of retina by decreasing oxidative stress in Dystrophic Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats. Schwann cells were harvested from the sciatic nerve of postnatal day 5, RCS rats. Twenty-five RCS rats randomly assigned to cell and sham groups. Schwann cells injected in the sub-retinal space in one eye of the cell group and carrier medium was injected in one eye of the sham group. The proof for the appropriate site of injection of Schwann cells confirmed by the green fluorescent protein (GFP) positive cells. Electroretinogram (ERG) and enucleation for histopathology and enzymatic evaluation were performed 1, 2 and 3 months post-injection. The enzymatic evaluation included catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Three months after injection, histopathology assessments showed a complete absence of the outer nuclear layer (ONL), photoreceptors and obvious reduction of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in the sham group. Cell group showed marked preservation of RPE, choroidal congestion and mild presence of ONL. The green fluorescent protein positive Schwann cells remained in one integrated layer during the study under RPE. The enzymatic evaluation showed that in cell group expression of SOD and GPx1 until month 2 and catalase until month 1 were significantly more than the sham group. At the end of month 3, the amplitude of ERG waves significantly preserved in cell group in comparison to baseline waves and the sham group. We concluded that Schwan cells are able to preserve retinal in RCS rats by reducing oxidative stress.

Article Type:
Review Article
Medical Hypothesis, Discovery & Innovation Ophthalmology Journal, Volume:8 Issue:4, 2019
323 - 332  
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