Eighteen Newly Found Verses Written by Sheikh Najm-al-din-e Rāzi

In Islamic parliament library, there is a collection (anthology) belonging to the 10th century collected by Sa´ad-al-din-e Elāhi/ Ălehi and can be considered as the third anthology which is similar to two collections of Yahya tofiq (dated 745 AH) and Ganjbakhsh Library 14456 Jong (probably belonging to the late 8th century). However, Mirafzali (2016) in his recent writing, provided fifty two newly found verses from Najm-e Dayeh obtained from these three collections (anthology) and particularly introduced the recognized and newly found poems by Najm-e Dayeh in Ganjbakhsh 14456 Jong. In this article, eighteen newly found other verses out of one hundred and fifteen verses available in these three collections are provided which are obtained by investigating the collection of Yahya Tofiq and Parliament Library 534 Jong. From this collection, it seems that thirty eight verses are by Najm-e Razi, because in other resources, his name is also mentioned. In addition, fifty nine newly found verses are also identified as Mirafzali’s verses and eighteen ones are also newly found verses (i.e., they are mentioned in bold letters in the text) which are provided in this article and there is no other resource mentioning his name. The main aim of this research is to scientifically investigate the newly found poems by Najm-e Razi and secondly to specify the correct attribution of these verses to him based on other resources. The present article attempts to answer three following questions through a scientific investigation on this issue: Why is it necessary to find new Najm-al-din's verses? In which format are his newly found verses classified? In which format is his new literature more frequent?

Review of Research

In addition to occasional mentioning of the biography writers, to the best knowledge of authors, Modaberi (1984) is pioneer in studying the subject related to the goal of this research and his research book entitled "Poems of Sheykh Najm-al din-e Razi, Dayeh" was published. Using handwritten and printed sources, the author of this book briefly explained Najm-e Dayeh's biography and collected his poems from ancient and original resources. However the author referred to many references, there are three shortcomings in his book: first, this book does not encompass all Najm-e Dayeh's poems and by a research in other resources, there are other poems attributed to Najm Dayeh which can be found. Present research aims to study this issue. On the other hand, in this book a part of poems attributed to Razi and other speakers is not mentioned and sometimes, the poems and particularly Quatrains which are attributed to Najm-e Razi need to study more or certainly they are not his poems as a mystic and poet. Therefore, this is required to revise the number of real verses composed by Najm-e Razi, whether this is 391 verses based on Modaberi (1984, p. 4) or 250 verses based on Riahi in collection of poems by Najm-e Razi in Mersad- al Ebad and Marmouzat and Resaleye Aqhl va Esgh (The book of wisdom and love) (Najm-e Razi, 1973, p. 54). Third, some verses in this book are deviated and falsified in term of records. The records in this research are corrected and we recorded more original verses to better understand Najm-e Dayeh's poems. I addition, in late 2015, Mohammadi published the book "Najm-al din-e Razi's poems" with an introduction, correction and explanation which was studied by Seyed Ali Mirafzali in 2016 in a research entitled "Najm-al din-e Razi's and His friends' poems and analysis of the book "Najm-al din-e Razi's poems" and studied the strengths and weaknesses of this book. After criticizing this book, MirAfzali, at the end of writing, quotes the poems attributed to Najm-e Dayeh from five ancient sources three of which are the Safinehs mentioned in this work. But in this valuable research, there are three deficiencies: first, the poems provided from two Safineh in his paper are not complete. In the first Jong, i.e. the Yahya Tofigh's Safineh, there are seventeen verses of him while Mirafzali (2016) quoted ony eleven poems of him and in Jong number 534 in Parliament Islamic Library, there are 52 verses by Dayeh but Mirafzali (2015) quoted only fourteen verses of Razi. Second, in his article the newly found verses of these three Jongs were not found in other resources. This research, irrespective of originality of attributing known poems to Najm-e Dayeh, in fact, provides a new and original record of the poems which can be used for better understanding of the poems by audiences.. Third, in his study on three collections of poems, collection of verses in Safineh, newly found verses (without subtracting the verses repetition in two other Jongs), particular newly found verses (with subtraction of repetition for verses in two other Safinehs) shared newly found verses with two other Safinehs, recently known poems shared with these two Bayaz as well as recently particular found verses in each Jong are not certain and as a result, in his article, it is not possible to find Razi's known and newly found poems, accurately. Disregarding this, other biography books explaining the poems of Najm-e Dayeh only studied his biography and quoted his previous poems following the previous resources and sometimes, some of these resources criticized superficially his poems so that it can be stated that however, they are valuable attempts in re-correcting Razi's poems, new resources such as three collection mentioned should be particularly studied to add newly found verses by Najm-e Razi to the previous verses and provide the remained poems in a comprehensive research on other resources.


This research is a library study. The resources at first are hand-written texts of three Safineh from which eighteen newly found verses are provided and then using other relevant resources, the correctness of attributing this literature to Najm-al-din-e Razi is investigated.


Najm-Al-din Abubakr Abdullah ibn Mohammad ibn Shahavar ibn Anushirva Abi al-Najib Al-Asadi Al-Razi (1177 – 1256) entitled as Razi and Najm-E-Razi called Dayeh who composed poems like other Sufiyah in addition to writing and mentioning his poems in his works and in most of the resources, there are brief statements about his situation are mentioned along with his poems and in general, it can be stated that only his Rubaiyat are mild and full of painful words. Generally, it can be stated that his quatrains are pathetic, pleasing and subtle. His literary position in poem is lower than his writing position. His certain poem collections are not a lot. His short quatrains, sonnets and odes are not collected in a collection (Shafiee Kadkani, 2002). The author of the book Poems of Sheykh Najm-al-din-e Razi (Dayeh) attempts to state that there is no poem collection and was not mentioned of him (Modaberi, 1984). He considered 390 poems of Najm-al-din-e Razi which are quatrains, some sonnets and odes proposed in a written book in different situations and attempted to prove that some of other poems are proposed in biography books and that hand-written Jongs and Sufian books attributed to his name (Ibid). One of reliable and important collections in which some poems of Najm-al-din-e Razi are provided, whether known or newly found ones, is the Jong number 534 in Parliament Islamic library which is the third Bayaz and is similar to the Jong 14456 in Ganjbakhsh library (belonging to late 15th century), and Yahya Tofigh's Safineh (15th century) which is collected by Sa´ad-al-din-e Elāhi/ Ălehi as one of the highlighted 13th and 14th centuries characters (Khatami & Saket, 2018). the present research attempts to provide newly found verses in these Safineh as a complementary material to Mirafzali's paper and using these resources, investigated the correctness of their attribution to Najm-e Razi.


In this research, eighteen newly found verses by Najm-e Dayeh from 115 verses in three Safineh of Yahya Tofigh, Jong 14456 in Ganj Bakhsh library and Safineh 534 in Parliament library obtained are provided. From this collection, probably thirty eight verses are Razi’s because they are attributed to him in other resources. Fifty nine newly found verses are also introduced by Mirafzali from these series of Safineh. Among eighteen newly found verses, nine verses are short odes, seven verses are Moghataat and two verses are single-verse format remained from his poems. Five verses are mentioned among the poems which are probably attributed to him because they are mentioned under his name in other resources. Moreover, 15 verses are newly found which are not mentioned under his name so far. Accordingly, based on the findings of this article it can be claimed that what is now available as Najm-e Razi's poems does not include all his poems. Using other Safineh and Jong in which other poems are attributed to Razi, one can provide his newly found verses which are necessary to investigate their originality of attrbituion.

Literary Studies, Volume:51 Issue: 2, 2018
51 - 76
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