Applying Theda Skocpol's Theory of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution
Message:
Abstract:
Since revolutions have been so important in world history over the past three centuries, various theories have been elaborated by historical sociologists, and the Iranian constitutional revolution is one of the turning points of Iranian history because it changed the political structure of the country and its effects are still there. Theda  Skocpol is one of the contemporary sociologists in the United States who has studied social revolutions in Asia and Europe. This research aims to explain the degree of conformity of the  Skocpol model with the constitutional revolution by a descriptive-explanatory method. According to the  Skocpol hypothesis, the social revolution is the product of an accidental confluence of structural factors. In her view, a social revolution is taking place in an agricultural and non-colonial country, and the factor of that international pressure on the government is peasant revolt and marginal elite participation. In the 19th century, Iran was an agricultural and non-colonial country, and all three of the factors that  Skocpol intended had role in constitutional revolution, but other factors were also effective, such as urban revolts and semi-colonial conditions. In fact, international pressure began with wars with Russia, and the Qajar government needed financial and tax revenue to strengthen its military. Thus, the government resorted to a centralized policy that resulted in economic pressures on the different classes. In response, all social classes objected to the modernization and economic reforms of the government, but the outcome of these protests depended on the position and influence and support of foreign agents. The constitutional revolution took place in the conditions of weak Russian power and British political support for the constitution, but with the Russian-British coalition the political power of the social classes disappeared. Thus, the Constitutional Revolution did not lead to the empowerment of Iran. So the constitutional revolution is almost in line with  Skocpol's theory of the fields of revolution, but it contradicts the consequences of the social revolutions intended by  Skocpol because Iran was in semi-colonial terms.
Article Type:
Research/Original Article
Language:
Persian
Published:
پژوهش نامه تاریخ اجتماعی و اقتصادی, Volume:8 Issue: 1, 2019
Pages:
1 - 17
magiran.com/p2049244  
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