Smoking is an important risk factor for gastrointestinal disorders such as peptic ulcer, Crohn's disease and various cancers. The present study discusses the most important and known effects of smoking on the gastrointestinal tract.
Method and Materials: This review uses the keywords Smoking, Gastrointestinal diseases, Inflammation and Cancer in the English databases like PubMed, Elsevier, Proquest, Google scholar, Google search engine and other websites as well as using keywords smoking, device disorders Digestion, inflammation and cancer were performed in SID and MagIran Persian databases.
Cigarette smoke has an inhibitory effect on the recovery and regeneration of the gastrointestinal tract due to its toxic constituents. Exposure to cigarette smoke is associated with increased apoptosis of epithelial cells, total dendritic cells, macrophages, CD4, and CD8T, along with unregulated mRNA expression in CCL9 and CCL20, which are important chemical triggers in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. Cigarette smoke accelerates colitis by IFN-YT and CD4 cells. Cigarette smoke can also cause oxidative stress and impair vasodilator function in chronic inflammatory microvascular disease, resulting in ischemia, ulceration, and fibrosis. In addition, smoking can induce a carcinogenic process in the GI tract through inflammation and release of several inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, TNF-a, IL-I, IL-6, chemokines, CXCLI and CXCL8.
Smoking can cause pathogenic and carcinogenic processes in the GI tract. In other words, it leads to severe chronic inflammation and then spread of cancer to the inflamed areas. Careful mechanistic studies of the effects of smoking may be helpful in developing more effective treatments for various gastrointestinal disorders.