The effectiveness of Hope Therapy on Islamic Optimism and Happiness of the Elderly

Age-related cognitive changes are inevitable in old ages, but the influence of variables such as education, fluid intelligence, and social components challenge the exact understanding of these changes and no clear picture on normal cognitive changes relative to age could be made. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate developmental changes in cognitive components (including STM, WM, inhibition, updating, executive performance, and visual-spatial skills) by controlling the mentioned variables after age 60. Samples included people over 55 living in Tehran among whom 201 participants were selected using a purposive sampling method (48 samples aging 55 to 60, 47 samples aging 60 to 65, 52 samples aging 65 to 70, and 54 over 70). All participants finished high school and showed equal operation in intelligence and social participation tests. Forward Digit Span, Backward Digit Span, Kim Karad visual memory test, Stroop, Wisconsin sorting Cards, spatial orientation tasks, and a researcher-developed questionnaire on social activity and relationships were used to collect data. Results showed meaningful differences in all cognitive tasks among elderly groups (60-65, 65-70, and over). Results reported that, after 60, the given cognitive variables decreased in accordance with age, so that as the age increased cognitive performance decreased in all cognitive tasks of the elderly. Based on these results, a clear image was taken about normal changes of cognition in aging and a cognitive rehabilitation package for older people is suggested.

Article Type:
Research/Original Article
Journal of Aging Psychology, Volume:5 Issue:2, 2019
117 - 130  
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