Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most form of leishmaniasis that caused by intracellular parasites, Leishmania.
A 39-year-old woman, known case of HIV infection, presented with a 6-month history of skin lesions initially on her face, then extending onto the chest, abdomen, and extremities. Laboratory examinations revealed leukopenia and a CD4 cell count of 280 cells / mm3. A biopsy was taken from skin lesions, and histopathological studies showed aggregates of macrophages filled with numerous Leishman bodies, the diagnosis of diffuse CL was confirmed. Consequently, she received liposomal amphotericin B (total dose of 40 mg/kg) as a case of diffuse CL. The skin lesions showed significant improvement after completion of treatment.
Diffuse CL should be considered as a differential diagnosis in all patients with diffuse skin lesions mainly in the cases that suffer from disorders of cell-mediated immunity.