Study of biochemical reactions of wheat cultivars to salinity stress can lead to identification of effective mechanisms for salinity tolerance. To determine the ion distribution pattern in wheat, also the effects of salinity stress and ion distribution on grain yield, this study was carried out. This research was down in a factorial experiment with two levels of salinity and six tolerant and sensitive wheat cultivars in two replications at research field of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman on growing season of 2011-2012. The concentration of sodium (Na +), potassium (K +), magnesium (Mg2 +) ions and Na + / K + ratio in different tissues of the plant, including flag leaf, spike and root, and grain yield of each plant, were measured. The results of analysis of variance showed that the interaction effects of salinity on the cultivars were significant in most of the traits. The concentration of sodium ions from the roots to the shoots was significantly decreased. With increasing salinity, K + concentration in root of all cultivars decreased significantly. Magnesium concentrations in leaf, spike and root decreased in salinity treatment compared to normal treatment. There was a significant difference between the cultivars in terms of Na+ / K+ ratio in all tissues and Moghan3 cultivar with the highest ratio in spike and root and Arta cultivar with the highest amount in flag leaf, were statistically in one group and other cultivars in the other group. According to the results of simple phenotypic correlation analysis, the sodium ion content in leaf, spike and root tissues had the highest and negative correlation with grain yield per plant. Regarding the reduction of wheat grain yield under salt stress conditions, ion distribution regulation in different ways, including selection of tolerant and resistant cultivars against ionic changes, can be effective in reducing the damage caused by salinity stress.
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