Cassia singueana (Delile) Lock from the family Fabaceae is a well-known medicinal plant that grows abundantly in Nigeria and other African countries, and has long been used in the treatment of various ailments including malaria and other infectious diseases. The present study aimed at assessing the composition, and bioactivity of the essential oil of the flowers of C. singueana collected from Nigeria. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and the chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The bioactivity of the oil was determined using the brine shrimp lethality assay, agar diffusion antimicrobial test, the 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, metal chelation, and superoxide anion antioxidant assays. The essential oil yield and the percentage of identified compounds were 1.58% and 97.91%, respectively. More than 20 compounds were identified. The major component was geranyl acetone (36.82%) followed by phytol (18.12%). The essential oil showed lethality against the brine shrimp larvae with an LC50 value of 18.7 µg/ml, and antimicrobial activity with largest inhibition zones of 32-33 mm against Candida albicans, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The oil also exhibited considerable antioxidant activity as evident from its ability to scavenge free-radicals such as DPPH, superoxide anions, and metal-chelation.
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