Research evidence suggests that the environment is an important factor in child development; in such a way that enrichment of the environment can help to child growth. In this regard, the present study was conducted to determine the role of environment on the intelligence quotient and social skills of 4-6 year-old children in Tehran.
This study was a descriptive and causal-comparative research. The study population included all the 4-6 year-old children in Tehran in 2016-2017, who were living in the homes, kindergartens, and nurseries. The research sample was consisted of 90 children (30 children in each environment) that were selected by convenience sampling, based on inclusion criteria. Data were collected using demographic questionnaire, social skills questionnaire (Matson, 1976), and child intelligence quotient software (Rayon, 1947). One way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test were used to analyze the data.
The findings showed that the environment had a significant effect on the intelligence quotient and social skills of children aged 4-6 years in Tehran city (p <0.05). Tukey's post hoc test showed that there were significant differences in the intelligence quotient of children living in home and those living in nursery, children living in home and those living in kindergarten, and children living in kindergarten and those living in nursery (p=0.001). Also, significant difference was found in the social skills of children living in home and those living in nursery (p=005) as well as between children living in kindergarten and those living in nursery (p=0.001). But, no significant difference was found between the children living in home and those in kindergarten (p=0.19).
The finding suggests that the kindergarten experience, which provides children with more opportunities for learning and development in terms of educational materials and social communication, is more appropriate for the child.