An Investigation of the Tablets of Opposites in Explaining Modified Propositions from Aristotle to Ibn Sina

Modified propositions are among the propositions raised in Aristotle's logic and transferred from Aristotle’s logic to Muslim logicians through Ibn Honain’s translation. In his translation, he has referred to these propositions as "opposition in propositions with actualized and non-actualized subjects". Apart from defining these propositions and dividing them according to their revocation and actualization, the opposition of propositions has been raised as one of the judgments of the propositions called the square of opposition. Propositions with non-actualized subjects do not have a square of opposition, because they are not mistaken for negation. But the propositions with actualized subjects, which may be actualized or non-actualized because of their predicate, in the two states of negation and affirmation, have a quadrilateral or square form, and their relationships are examined in the width, length, and diameter of square so that the modified is distinguished from negation. The disagreement of the logicians in the meaning of non-actualized and modified caused a change in the shape and relationships of this square. Following this change, this square evolved from the quadrilateral to the cubic form, which involved a change in its inner aspects and meaning. Thus, by comparing the views of logicians, it will be explained why and how Aristotle shaped this square; Farabi put it in order and Ibn Sina expanded and deepened it.

مجله معارف منطقی, Volume:5 Issue:9, 2020
25 - 52  
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